Combined Modality Treatment for Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Esophageal Carcinoma Located at or Above the Level of the Tracheal Bifurcation
Despite the advances of en bloc esophagectomy and lymph node dissection, the results of surgical resection alone in patients with advanced squamous cell esophageal cancer remain disappointing [1, 2]. Complete macroscopic and microscopic tumor removal, i.e., an RO resection according to the UICC 1987 definition , provides the only chance for long-term survival in this situation [4, 5]. Due to the close anatomical relation between the esophagus, trachea, and main stem bronchi, complete macroscopic and microscopic tumor removal is particularly difficult in patients with tumors in the proximal half of the esophagus . Consequently, surgical resection in patients with locally advanced squamous cell esophageal carcinoma located at or above the level of the tracheal bifurcation is usually palliative and the prognosis is dismal .
KeywordsEsophageal Carcinoma Azygos Vein Squamous Cell Esophageal Cancer Combine Modality Treatment Proximal Esophagus
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