Earth’s Environment and Ocean Research

  • Jiro Kondo


The earth in the solar system is presumed to have been created by the collision of small planets or asteroids which measured about 10 km in diameter. Containing volatile matter such as water, carbon, and so on, these gases were suddenly released at the time of the collision and formed a primeval atmosphere to envelope the outer crust of the planet during its growth. The asteroid or small planet contained metallic iron and when the metal reacted with steam, the iron oxidized and hydrogen remained. This hydrogen and carbon reacted to create methane. During the initial stage when the primeval earth started to grow, the earth’s crust is assumed to have been enveloped in an atmosphere of hydrogen, methane, steam, and so on. However, as the primeval earth grew and the gravitational force increased, the amount of energy released by collisions on the earth’s surface augmented and the absorption the primeval atmosphere of their heat radiation caused the temperature of the earth’s crust to rise. As a result, the metallic iron and steam reaction no longer progressed. The overall volume of steam increased and the volume of hydrogen decreased. This led to carbon becoming stabilized as carbon monoxide. Therefore, the primeval atmosphere over the high temperatures of the earth’s crust which approximated the melting points of rocks, chiefly consisted of steam and carbon monoxide. The amount of steam in the atmosphere, as the earth’s crust was covered with magma, stopped fluctuating in volume. The total volume approximated the volume of the oceans today.


Ocean Water Metallic Iron Ocean Research Outer Crust Small Planet 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiro Kondo
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of TokyoJapan

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