This chapter discusses beating or “ornithopter.” The beating motion of wings is exclusively used in the powered flight of birds and insects. In flying, this is the only way these creatures can counter the gravity force and propel themselves against aerodynamic drag. Other methods of locomotion, adopted widely in the swimming motion of fish and mammals, are inappropriate for flying because they are incapable of generating an aerodynamic force close to the center of gravity and maintaining trimmed flight without tumbling.


Aerodynamic Force Lift Coefficient Fore Wing Flight Speed Hind Wing 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akira Azuma
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TokyoSaiwai-ku, Kawasaki 210Japan

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