Hepatitis C virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma
For the past two decades, hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been believed to be one of causative factors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans, especially in areas where HBV is endemic [1-3]. There is some evidence to support the close relationship between chronic HBV infection and development of HCC; for instance, areas where there is a high prevalence of HCC correspond to endemic areas of HBV. In Asia and Africa, both the HBV carrier rate and HCC incidence are very high. On the contrary, in areas where HBV infection is uncommon, such as the United States, the incidence of HCC is also low. Furthermore, the percentage of patients testing positive for HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen) is high among patients with HCC in those endemic areas, for example, 80% in Taiwan  and 72% in Uganda . In addition, HBV DNA has been proved to be integrated into cellular DNA of tumor cells in patients with HBsAg-positive HCC [6-9] and non-tumor hepatocytes .
KeywordsLiver Cancer Study Group Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus Develop Liver Cirrhosis Infected Chimpanzee HBsAg Negative Case
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