Pathology, diagnosis, and treatment for small liver cancer
Since the introduction of modern imaging modalities into the diagnosis of liver diseases, the detection of small mass lesions in the liver has become possible and the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been established. Regular check-ups with examinations of tumor markers, serum alpha-fetoprotein and ultrasonography (US) for chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis are indispensable for making an early diagnosis of HCC. Although conventional diagnostic imaging and radiographic modalities, such as ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and angiography, are effectively used in detecting small mass lesions of the liver, they cannot discriminate small HCC from benign mass lesions such as large regenerative nodules (LRNs) of cirrhosis. Thus, histological examinations of small mass lesions by percutaneous biopsy under ultrasound image control have become imperative for reaching a final diagnosis of HCC and designing an appropriate treatment regimen.
KeywordsTranscatheter Arterial Embolization Percutaneous Ethanol Injection Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma Adenomatous Hyperplasia Biopsy Diagnosis
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 4.Shinagawa T, Ohto M, Kimura K, Tsunetomi S, Morita M, Saisho H, Tsuchiya Y, Saotome N, Karasawa E, Miki M, Ueno T, Okuda K (1984) Diagnosis and clinical features of small hepatocellular carcinoma with emphasis on the utility of real-time ultrasonography. A study in 51 patients. Gastroenterology 86: 495–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 7.Tsunetomi S (1987) Study of computed tomography in diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma (in Japanese). Chiba Igaku 63: 185–195Google Scholar
- 13.Ohto M, Kimura K, Tsuchiya Y, Ebara M (1987) Sonographic guided procedures in the liver and biliary tract. In: van Sonnenberg E (ed) Interventional ultrasound. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 77–101Google Scholar
- 17.Sasaki Y, Imaoka S, Iwanaga T, Miyoshi Y, Ishikawa O, Ohigashi H, Kasugai H, Kojima J, Tanaka S, Fujita M, Kawamoto S, Ishiguro S (1986) New approach of chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: Lipiodol, cisplatin sandwich therapy (in Japanese). J Jpn Soc Cancer Ther 21: 647–654Google Scholar
- 18.Ohto M, Ebara M, Watanabe Y, Sugiura N, Shinagawa T, Okuda K (1988) Percutaneous ethanol injection ( PEI) therapy for small hepatocellular carcinoma: Evaluation of its utility on the basis of tumor-images and survival after therapy. Jpn J Med Imaging 7: 25–33Google Scholar