Pathology, diagnosis, and treatment for small liver cancer

  • Masao Ohto
  • Fukuo Kondo
  • Masaaki Ebara


Since the introduction of modern imaging modalities into the diagnosis of liver diseases, the detection of small mass lesions in the liver has become possible and the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been established. Regular check-ups with examinations of tumor markers, serum alpha-fetoprotein and ultrasonography (US) for chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis are indispensable for making an early diagnosis of HCC. Although conventional diagnostic imaging and radiographic modalities, such as ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and angiography, are effectively used in detecting small mass lesions of the liver, they cannot discriminate small HCC from benign mass lesions such as large regenerative nodules (LRNs) of cirrhosis. Thus, histological examinations of small mass lesions by percutaneous biopsy under ultrasound image control have become imperative for reaching a final diagnosis of HCC and designing an appropriate treatment regimen.


Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Percutaneous Ethanol Injection Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma Adenomatous Hyperplasia Biopsy Diagnosis 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masao Ohto
    • 1
  • Fukuo Kondo
    • 1
  • Masaaki Ebara
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine and Department of PathologyChiba University School of MedicineChibaJapan

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