Advertisement

Clinical features and diagnosis of primary liver cancer

  • Yutaka Inagaki
  • Masashi Unoura
  • Kenichi Kobayashi

Abstract

Primary liver cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death in Japan, and approximately 23,000 patients died of this cancer in 1989 [1]. Moreover, the number of deaths due to primary liver cancer is increasing markedly every year. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 90% of primary liver cancer in Japan, and 80 to 90% of HCC is associated with liver cirrhosis [2, 3]. Poor hepatic functional reserve due to underlying cirrhosis is the major factor which limits extended surgical resection in many cases. Obviously it is important to detect HCC at an early stage for curative treatment.

Keywords

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Liver Cirrhosis Portal Vein Thrombosis Primary Liver Cancer Paraneoplastic Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ministry of Health and Welfare (1990) Annual report of demographic statistics in Japan, 1989. Health and Welfare Statistics Association, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Miyaji T (1976) Association of hepatocellular carcinoma with cirrhosis among autopsy cases in Japan during 14 years from 1958 to 1971. Gann Monogr Cancer Res 18: 129–149Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    The Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan (1990) Primary liver cancer in Japan. Clinicopathologic features and results of surgical treatment. Ann Surg 211: 277–287Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Okazaki N, Yoshida T, Yoshino M (1984) Screening of patients with chronic liver disease for hepatocellular carcinoma by ultrasonography. Clin Oncol 10: 241–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shinagawa T, Ohto M, Kimura K, Tsunetomi S, Morita M, Saisho H, Tsuchiya Y, Saotome N, Karasawa E, Miki M, Ueno T, Okuda K (1984) Diagnosis and clinical features of small hepatocellular carcinoma with emphasis on theutility of real-time ultrasonography. A study in 51 patients. Gastroenterology 86: 495–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Itai Y, Nishikawa J, Tasaka A (1979) Computed tomography of hepatocellular carcinoma. Radiology 131: 165–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kunstinger F, Federle MP, Moss AA, Marks W. (1980) Computed tomography of hepatocellular carcinoma. Am J Roentgenol 134: 431–437Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Okuda K (1986) Early recognition of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 6: 729–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    The Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan (1987) The general rules for the clinical and pathological study of primary liver cancer, 2nd edn. Kanehara, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    The Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan (1990) Follow-up investigation of primary liver cancer. 9th report. Shinko Press, KyotoGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    The Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan (1984) Follow-up investigation of primary liver cancer. 6th report. Shinko Press, KyotoGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Horie Y, Katoh S, Yoshida H, Imaoka T, Suou T, Hirayama C (1983) Pedunculated hepatocellular carcinoma. Report of three cases and review of literature. Cancer 51: 746–751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Takashima T, Matsui O (1980) Infusion hepatic angiography in the detection of small hepatocellular carcinoma. Radiology 136: 321–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nakashima T, Okada K, Kojiro M, Jimi A, Yamaguchi R, Sakamoto K, Ikari T (1983) Pathology of hepatocellular carcinoma in Japan. 232 consecutive cases autopsied in ten years. Cancer 51:863–877PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hayakawa Y, Urabe T, Yoneshima M, Terada M, Mizuno Y, Matsushita E, Inagaki Y, Unoura M, Kobayashi K, Hattori N (1989) A case of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hemobilia in which endoscopic nasobiliary drainage and urokinase infusion was useful for improving jaundice. Gastroenterol Endoscopy 31: 2472–2477Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kato Y, Tanaka N, Kobayashi K, Ikeda T, Hattori N, Nonomura A (1983) Growth of hepatocellular carcinoma into the right atrium: report of five cases. Ann Intern Med 99: 472–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Edmondson HA, Steiner PE (1954) Primary carcinoma of the liver. A study of 100 cases among 48,900 necropsies. Cancer 7: 462–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Anthony PP (1973) Primary carcinoma of the liver: a study of 282 cases in Ugandan Africans. J Pathol Bacteriol 110: 37–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sherlock S (1985) Clinically latent cirrhosis. In: Sherlock S (ed) Diseases of the liver and biliary system, 7th edn. Black well Scientific Publications, London, p 340Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kobayashi K, Inagaki Y, Unoura M, Tanaka N, Kato Y, Hattori N (1991) Studies of clinically latent cirrhosis. Hepatogastroenterology 37: 77–80, 1991Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hoofnagle JH, Seeff LB (1982) Natural history of chronic type B hepatitis. In: Popper H, Schaffner F (eds) Progress in liver diseases, vol VII. Grune and Stratton, New York, p 469Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Choo QL, Kuo G, Weiner AJ, Overby LR, Bradley DW, Houghton M (1989) Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-born non-A, non-B viral hepatitis genome. Science 244: 359–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kuo G, Choo QL, Alter HJ, Gitnick GL, Redeker AG, Purcell RH, Miyamura T, Dienstag JL, Alter MJ, Stevens CE, Tegtmeier GE, Bonino F, Colombo M, Lee WS, Kuo C, Berger K, Shuster JR, Overby LR, Bradley DW, Houghton M (1989) An assay for circulating antibodies to a major etiologic virus of human non-A, non-B hepatitis. Science 244: 362–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kew MC (1975) Alpha-fetoprotein. In: Read AE (ed) Modern trends in gastroenterology, vol 5. Butterworths, London, p 91Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Alpert E (1976) Human alpha-1 fetoprotein. In: Okuda K, Peters RL (eds) Hepatocellular carcinoma. John Wiley and Sons, New York, p 353Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liebman HA, Furie BC, Tong MJ, Blanchard RA, Lo KJ, Coleman MS, Furie B (1984) Des-r-carboxy (abnormal) prothrombin as a serum marker of primary hepato-cellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med 310: 1427–1431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Furusawa A, Unoura M, Notsumata K, Morioka T, Hayakawa K, Matsushita E, Kobayashi K, Hattori N, Makino H, Fukuoka K, Tanaka N, Nakagawa H, Nishimura K, Kanai M, Sugimoto T (1989) Clinico-pathological study of juvenile hepatocellular carcinoma. Jpn J Gastroenterol 86: 2765–2772Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kew MC, Fisher JW (1986) Serum erythropoietin concentration in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 58: 2485–2488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Knill-Jones RP, Buckle RM, Parsons V, Calne RY, Williams R (1970) Hypercalcemia and increased parathyroid-hormone activity in a primary hepatoma. N Engl J Med 282: 704–708PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kubo Y, Okuda K, Musha H, Nakashima T (1978) Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma during a clinical follow-up of chronic liver disease. Observations in 31 patients. Gastroenterology 74: 578–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hattori N, Ohmizo R, Unoura M, Tanaka N, Kobayashi K (1988) Abnormal prothrombin measurements in hepatocellular carcinoma. J Tumor Marker Oncol 3: 207–216Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Okada K, Kamiyama I, Inomata M, Imai M, Miyakawa Y, Mayumi M (1976) e Antigen and anti-e in the serum of asymptomatic carrier mothers as indicators of positive and negative transmission of hepatitis B virus to their infants. N Engl J Med 294: 746–749Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Popper H, Gerber MA, Thung SN (1982) The elation of hepatocellular carcinoma to infection with hepatitis B and related viruses in man and animals. Hepatology 2.1S–9SGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Beasley RP, Lin CC, Hwang LY, Chien CS (1981) Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus: A prospective study of 22,707 men in Taiwan. Lancet 11: 1129–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ohbayashi A, Tanaka S, Ohtake H, Harada H, Komachiya K, Kodama T, Okada Y, Takahashi K, Tanaka N, Yamada H, Sakamoto H, Shimizu M (1983) Clinico-pathological observations on relationship of blood transfusion to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Acta Hepatol Jpn 24: 521–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kiyosawa K, Sodeyama T, Tanaka E, Gibo Y, Yoshizawa K, Nakano Y, Furuta S, Akahane Y, Nishioka K, Purcell RH, Alter HJ (1990) Interrelationship of blood transfusion, non-A, non- B hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: analysis by detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 12: 671–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Saito I, Miyamura T, Ohbayashi A, Harada H, Katayama T, Watanabe Y, Koi S, Onji M, Ohta Y, Choo QL, Houghton M, Kuo G (1990) Hepatitis C virus infection is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 6547–6549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shimizu S, Kiyosawa K, Sodeyama T, Tanaka E, Yosizawa K, Nakano Y, Usuda S, Furuta S (1990) Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus in heavy drinkers with liver disease. Acta Hepatol Jpn 31: 589–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nagao T, Inoue S, Yoshimi F, Sodeyama M, Omori Y, Mizuta T, Kawano N, Morioda Y (1990) Postoperative recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Ann Surg 211: 28–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kanai T, Hirohashi S, Upton MP, Noguchi M, Kishi K, Makuuchi M, Yamasaki S, Hasegawa H, Takayasu K, Moriyama N, Shimosato Y (1987) Pathology of small hepatocellular carcinoma. A proposal for a new gross classification. Cancer 60: 810–819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Esumi M, Aritaka T, Arii M, Suzuki K, Tanikawa K, Mizuo H, Mima T, Shikata T (1986) Clonal origin of human hepatoma determined by integration of hepatitis B virus DNA. Cancer Res 46: 5767–5771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Blum HE, Offensperger WB, Walter E, Offensperger S, Wahl A, Zeschnigk C, Gerok W (1987) Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus infection: molecular evidence for monoclonal origin and expansion of malignantly transformed hepatocytes. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 113: 466–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kobayashi K, Sugimoto T, Makino H, Kumagai M, Unoura M, Tanaka N, Kato Y, Hattori N (1985) Screening methods for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 6: 1100–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Matsui O, Kadoya M, Suzuki M (1983) Work in progress: dynamic sequential computed tomography during arterial portography in the detection of hepatic neoplasms. Radiology 146: 721–727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Majima Y, Fujimoto T, Iwai I, Tanaka M, Sakai T, Abe M, Abe H, Tanikawa K (1988) Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma by a new technique of ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy. Acta Hepatol Jpn 29: 628–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Edmondson HA (1976) Benign epithelial tumors and tumor-like lesions of the liver. In: Okuda K, Peters RL (eds) Hepatocellular carcinoma. John Wiley and Sons, New York, p 309Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Arakawa M, Sugihara S, Kenmochi K, et al. (1986) Small mass lesions in cirrhosis: transition from benign adenomatous hyperplasia to hepatocellular carcinoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1: 3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Takayama T, Makuuchi M, Hirohashi S, Sakamoto M, Okazaki N, Takayasu K, Kosuge T, Motoo Y, Yamazaki S, Hasegawa H (1990) Malignant transformation of adenomatous hyperplasia to hepatocellular carcinoma. Lancet 336: 1150–1153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yutaka Inagaki
    • 1
  • Masashi Unoura
    • 1
  • Kenichi Kobayashi
    • 1
  1. 1.First Department of Internal Medicine, School of MedicineKanazawa UniversityKanazawa, IshikawaJapan

Personalised recommendations