Diseases of the Spine and Spinal Cord

  • Koreaki Mori


The spinal canal is a narrow space formed by bony elements including the vertebrae and vertebral discs, and extends from above downwards. Consequently, lesions in this region are characterized by longitudinal expansion in addition to lateral growth. With the development of the CT scan, methods for diagnosis of intraspinal lesions improved remarkably. However, because of bony artifacts and the fact that the longitudinal extent of lesions cannot be properly depicted, myelography is still used in addition to the CT scan. MRI, however, simultaneously provides the solution to all of these problems. Sagittal sections of the spinal column have become possible, making it easy to diagnose disorders of the spine, including spinal spondylosis, disc hernias, fractures, calcification of the posterior longitudinal ligaments, cancers, and spinal metastases. Diagnosis of diseases of the spinal cord, particularly those localized in the medullocervical cord junction and cervical cord has been greatly facilitated.


Spinal Cord Cervical Spine Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Spinal Meningioma Thoracic Disk Herniation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aguila LA, Piraino DW, Modic MT, Dudley AW, Duehesneau PM, Weinstein MA (1985) The intranuclear cleft of the intervertebral disk: magnetic resonance imaging. Radiology 155: 155–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aii H, Koyama T (1988) Radiological imaging techniques in syringo-hydromyelia. Spine and Spinal Cord 1: 203–209 (Japanese)Google Scholar
  3. Aichner F, Poe we V, Rogalsky W, Wallnofer K, Willeit J (1985) Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of spinal cord diseases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 48: 1220–1229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aubin ML, Baleriaux D, Cosnard G, Cranzet G, Doyon D, Halimi P, Manelfe C (1987) MRI in syringomyelia of congenital, infectious, traumatic or idiopathic origin. A study of 142 cases. J Neuroradiol 14: 313–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barkovich A J, Sherman JL, Citrin CM, Wippold FJ II (1987) MR of postoperative syringomyelia. AJNR 8: 319–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnes PD, Lester PD, Yamanashi WS, Prince JR (1986) MRI in infants and children with spinal dysraphism. AJR 147: 339–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bertino RE, Porter BA, Stimac GK, Tepper SJ (1988) Imaging spinal osteomyelitis and epidural abscess with short T, inversion recovery (STIR). AJNR 9: 563–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bosley TM, Cohen DA, Schatz NJ, Zimmerman RA, Bilaniuk LT, Savino PJ, Sergott RS (1985) Comparison of metrizamide computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of lesions at the cervicomedullary junction. Neurology 35: 485–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Braun M, Cosnard G, Cabanis EA, Iba-Zizen MT, Pharaboz C, Jean-Bourquin D, Derosier C, Perfettini C, Tamraz JC, Bocquet M (1986) NMR imaging and neuromas. J Neurbradiol 13: 209–225Google Scholar
  10. Bundschuh C, Modic MT, Kearney F, Morris R, Deal C (1988) Rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine: surface-coil MR imaging. AJNR 9: 565–571Google Scholar
  11. Burk DL, Brunberg JA, Kanal E, Latchaw RE, Wolf GL (1987) Spinal and paraspinal neurofibromatosis: surface coil MR imaging at 1.5 T. Radiology 162: 797–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bydder GM, Brown J, Niendolf HP, Young IR (1985) Enhancement of cervical intraspinal tumors in MR imaging with intravenous gadolinium-DTPA. JCAT 9: 847–851Google Scholar
  13. Carsin M, Gandon Y, Rolland Y, Simon J (1987) MRI of the spinal cord: intramedullary tumors. J Neuroradiol 14: 337–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Castillo M, Quencer RM, Green BA, Montalvo BM (1987) Syringomyelia as a consequence of compressive extramedullary lesions: postoperative clinical and radiological manifestations. AJNR 8: 973–978Google Scholar
  15. Chafetz NI, Genant HK, Moon KL, Helms CA, Morris JM (1984) Recognition of lumbar disc herniation with NMR. AJNR 5: 23–26Google Scholar
  16. Chakeres DW, Flickinger F, Bresnahan JC, Beatti MS, Weiss KL, Miller C, Stokes BT (1987) MR imaging of acute spinal cord trauma. AJNR 8: 11–18Google Scholar
  17. Citri CM, Sherman JL, Gangarosa RE, Scanlon D (1987) Physiology of the CSF flow void sign. Modification by cardiac gating. AJR 148: 205–208Google Scholar
  18. Crawshaw C, Kean DM, Mulholland RC, Worthington BS, Finlay D, Hawkes RC, Gyngell M, Moore WS (1984) The use of nuclear magnetic resonance in the diagnosis of lateral canal entrapment. J Bone Joint Surg 66b: 711–715Google Scholar
  19. Daffner RH, Lupetin AR, Dash N, Deeb ZL, Sefczek RJ, Shapiro RL (1986) MRI in the detection of malignant infiltration of bone marrow. AJR 146: 353–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Daniels DL, Hyde JS, Kneeland JB, Jesmanowic ZA, Froncisz W, Grist TM, Peck P, Williams AL, Haughton VM (1986) The cervical nerves and foramina: local coil MR imaging. AJNR 7: 129–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Di Chiro G, Doppman JL, Dwyer AJ, Patronas NJ, Knop RH, Bairamian D, Vermess M, Oldfield EH (1985) Tumors and arteriovenous malformations of the spinal cord. Assessment using MR. Radiology 1566: 689–697Google Scholar
  22. Di Chiro G, Knop RH, Girton ME, Dwyer A J, Doppman JL, Patronas NJ, Gamsow OA, Brechbiel MW, Brooks RA (1985) MR cisternography and myelography with Gd-DPTA in monkeys. Radiology 157: 373–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dormont D, Assouline E, Gelbers F, Helias A, Halimi P, Chiras J, Bories J, Doyon D, Merland JJ (1987) MRI study of spinal arteriovenous malformations. J Neuroradiol 14: 351–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Edelman RR, Shoukimas GM, Stark DD, Davis KR, New PFJ, Saini S, Rosenthal DI, Wismer GL, Brady TJ (1985) High-resolution surface-coil imaging of lumbar disk disease. AJR 144: 1123–1129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Enzmann DR, Griffin C, Rubin JB (1987) Potential false-negative MR images of the thoracic spine in disk disease with switching of phase- and frequency-encoding gradients. Radiology 165: 635–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Enzmann DR, Rubin JB, DeLaPaz R, Wright A (1986) Cerebrospinal fluid pulsation: benefits and pitfalls in MR imaging. Radiology 161: 773–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Enzmann DR, Rubin JB, Wright A (1987) Use of cerebrospinal fluid gating to improve T2-weighted images, part I. The spinal cord. Radiology 162: 763–767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Enzmann DR, Rubin JB, Wright A (1987) Cervical spine MR imaging: generating high signal CSF in sagittal and axial images. Radiology 163: 233–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Flanningan BD, Lufkin RB, McGlande C, Winter J, Batzdorf U, Wilson G, Rauschining W, Bradley WG Jr (1987) MR imaging of the cervical spine: neurovascular anatomy. AJNR 8: 27–32Google Scholar
  30. Gebarski SS, Maynard FW, Gabrielsen TO, Krake JE, Latack JT, Hoff JT (1985) Post-traumatic progressive myelopathy. Radiology 157: 379–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gibson MJ, Buckley J, MaWhinney R, Mulholland RC, Worthington BS (1986) Magnetic resonance imaging and dis;cography in the diagnosis of disc degeneration. J Bone Jt Surg 68b: 369–373Google Scholar
  32. Glass RBJ, Poznanski AK, Fisher MR, Shkolnik A, Dias L (1986) MR imaging of osteoid osteoma. JCAT 10: 1065–1067Google Scholar
  33. Goy AMC, Pinto RS, Raghavendra BR, Epstein FJ, Kricheff II (1986) Intramedullary spinal cord tumors: MR imaging, with emphasis on associated cysts. Radiology 161: 381–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Grenier N, Grossman RI, Schiebler ML, Yeager BA, Goldberg HI, Kressel HY (1987) Degenerative lumbar disk disease: pitfalls and usefulness of MR imaging in detection of vacuum phenomenon. Radiology 164: 861–865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Grenier N, Kressel HY, Schiebler ML, Grossman RI, Dalinka MK (1987) Normal and degenerative posterior spinal structures: MR imaging. Radiology 165: 517–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hackney DB, Asato R, Joseph PM, Carvlin MJ, McGrath JT, Grossman RI, Kassab EA, De Simone D (1986) Hemorrhage and edema in acute spinal compression: demonstration by MR imaging. Radiology 161: 387–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hackney DB, Grossman RI, Zimmerman RA, Joseph PM, Goldberg HI, Bilaniuk LT (1986) MR characteristics of iophendylate (Pantopaque). JCAT 10: 401–40Google Scholar
  38. Hajek PC, Baker LL, Goobar JE, Sartoris DJ, Hesselink JR, Haghighi P, Resnick D (1987) Focal fat deposition in axial bone marrow: MR characteristics. Radiology 162: 245–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Han JS, Benson JE, Kaufman B, Rekate HL, Alfidi RJ, Bohlman HH, Kaufman B (1985) Demonstration of diastematomyelia and associated abnormalities with MR imaging. AJNR 6: 215–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Holtas SL, Kido DK, Simon JH (1986) MR imaging of spinal lymphoma. JCAT 10: 111–115Google Scholar
  41. Jolescz FA, Polak JF, Ruenzel PW, Adams DF (1984) Wallerian degeneration demonstrated by magnetic resonance: spectroscopic measurements on peripheral nerve. Radiology 152: 85–87Google Scholar
  42. Kan S (1988) Spinal cord lesions. Journal of Medical Imagings 8: 413–418 (Japanese)Google Scholar
  43. Kantrowicz LR, Pais MJ, Burnett K, Choi B, Pritz MB (1986) Intraspinal neurenteric cyst containing gastric mucosa: CT and MRI findings. Pediatr Radiol 16: 324–327Google Scholar
  44. Karnaze MG, Gado MH, Sartor KJ, Hodges FJ III (1987) Comparison of MR and CT myelography in imaging the cervical and thoracic spine. AJNR 8: 983–989Google Scholar
  45. Kean DM, Smith MA, Douglas RHB, Martyn CN, Best JJK (1985) Two examples of CNS lipomas demonstrated by computed tomography and low field (0.08 T) MR imaging. JCAT 9: 494–496Google Scholar
  46. Kim KS, Weinberg PE (1986) Magnetic resonance imaging of a spinal extradural arachnoid cyst. Surg Neurol 26: 249–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kokmen E, Marsh WR, Baker HL (1985) Magnetic resonance imaging in syringomyelia. Neurosurgery 17: 267–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kulkarni MV, Burks DD, Price AC, Cobb C, Allen JH (1985) Diagnosis of spinal arteriovenous malformation in a pregnant patient by MR imaging. JCAT 9: 171–173Google Scholar
  49. Kunimoto M, Inoue K, Matsumoto A, Shimizu T, Mannen T (1987) The progress in radiological techniques and the change of the concept to syrnigomyelia: an analysis of 17 admitted patients for 20 years. Clin Neurol 27: 1372–1378 (English abstract)Google Scholar
  50. Laakman RW, Kaufmen B, Han JS, Nelson AD, Clampitt M, O’Block AM, Haaga JR, Alfidi RJ (1985) MR imaging in patients with metallic implants. Radiology 157: 711–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Lantos G, Epstein F, Kory LA (1987) Magnetic resonance imaging of intradural spinal lipoma. Neurosurgery 20: 469–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Lee BCP, Deck MDF, Kneeland JB, Cahill PT (1985) MR imaging of the craniocervical junction. AJNR 6: 209–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lee BCP, Zimmerman RD, Manning JJ, Deck MDF (1985) MR imaging of syringomyelia and hydromyelia. AJR 144: 1149–1156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lee M (1986) MRI of the spinal cord: especially the evaluation of syringomyelia, spinal cord tumor and spinal dysraphism. Adv Neurol Sci 30: 517–527 (English abstract)Google Scholar
  55. Lewis TT, Kinsley DPE (1987) Magnetic resonance imaging of multiple spinal neurofibromata-neurofibromatosis. Neuroradiology 29: 562–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Machida T (1986) Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Japanisch-Deutsche Medizinische Berichte 31: 43–49 (Japanese)Google Scholar
  57. Mamourian AC, Briggs RW (1986) Appearance of Pantopaque on MR images. Radiology 158: 457–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Maravilla KR, Lesh P, Weinreb JC, Selby DK, Mooney V (1985) Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine with CT correlation. AJNR 6: 237–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Masaryk TJ, Boumphrey F, Modic MT, Tamborrello C, Ross JS, Brown MD (1986) Effects of chemonucleolysis demonstrated by MR imaging. JCAT 10: 917–923Google Scholar
  60. Masaryk TJ, Modic MT, Geisinger MA, Standefer J, Hardy RW, Boumphrey F, Duchesneau PM (1986) Cervical myelopathy: a comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and myelography. JCAT 10: 184–194Google Scholar
  61. Masaryk TJ, Ross JS, Modic MT, Boumphrey F, Bohlman H, Wilber G (1988) High-resolution MR imaging of sequestered lumbar intervertebral discs. AJNR 9: 351–358Google Scholar
  62. Masaryk TJ, Ross JS, Modic MT, Ruff RL, Selman WR, Ratcheson RA (1987) Radiculomeningeal vascular malformations of the spine: MR imaging. Radiology 164: 845–849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Matsuoka Y, Machida T, Yoshikawa K, Iio M (1985) Magnetic resonance imaging of the tumor in the spine. Jpn J Clin Radiol 30: 1061–1067 (English abstract)Google Scholar
  64. Matsuoka Y, Yoshikawa K, Machida T, Iio M (1987) Spinal cord disease and MRI diagnosis. Neurological Surgery 15: 813–818 (English abstract)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. McArdle CB, Crofford MJ, Mirfakhraee M, Amparo EG, Calhoum JS (1986) Surface coil MR of spinal trauma: preliminary experience. AJNR 7: 885–893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Merine D, Wang H, Kumar AJ, Zinreich SJ, Rosenbaum AE (1987) CT myelography and MR imaging of acute transverse myelitis. JCAT 11: 606–608Google Scholar
  67. Mikhael MA, Ciric IS, Tarkington JA (1985) MR imaging in spinal echinococcosis. JCAT 9: 398–400Google Scholar
  68. Modic MT, Feiglin DH, Piraino DW, Boumphrey F, Weinstein MA, Duchesneau PM, Rehm S (1985) Vertebral osteomyelitis: assessment using MR. Radiology 157: 157–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Modic MT, Masaryk T, Boumphrey F, Goormastic M, Bell G (1986) Lumbar herniated disc disease and canal stenosis: prospective evaluation by surface coil MR, and myelography. AJNR 7: 709–711Google Scholar
  70. Modic MT, Masaryk T, Paushter D (1986) Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Radiol Clin N Amer 24: 229–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Modic MT, Masaryk TJ, Mulopulos GP, Bundschuh C, Han JS, Bohlman H (1986)Cervical radiculopathy: prospective evaluation with surface coil MR imaginng, CT with metrizamide and metrizamide myelography. Radiology 161: 753–759Google Scholar
  72. Modic MT, Masaryk TJ, Ross JS, Mulopulos GP, Bundschuh CV, Bohlman H (1987)Cervical radiculopathy: value of oblique MR imaging. Radiology 163: 227–231Google Scholar
  73. Modic MT, Pavlicek W, Weinstein MA, Boumphrey F, Ngo F, Hardy R, Duchesneau PM (1984) Magnetic resonance imaging of intervertebral disc disease: clinical and pulse sequence considerations. Radiology 152: 103–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Modic MT, Weinstein MA, Pavlicek W, Boumphrey F, Starnes D, Duchesneau PM (1984) MRI of the cervical spine. AJNR 5: 15–22Google Scholar
  75. Monajati A, Spitzler RM, Wiley JLaR, Heggeness L (1986) MR imaging of a spinal teratoma. JCAT 10: 307–310Google Scholar
  76. Mori K, Kamimura Y, Uchida Y, Kurisaka M, Eguchi S (1986) Large intramedullary lipoma of the cervical cord and posterior fossa. J Neurosurg 64: 974–976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Mukai E (1988) Magnetic resonance imaging in syringomyelia. Spine and Spinal Cord 1: 15–20 (Japanese)Google Scholar
  78. Nabors WW, McCrary ME, Clemente RJ, Albanna FJ, Lesnik RH, Pait TG, Kobrine AI (1986) Identification of a retained surgical sponge using magnetic resonance imaging. Neurosurgery 18: 496–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Okada E, Uyama E, Uchino M, Araki S, Koga K (1987) A case of intramedullary spinal cord hematoma with subacute transverse myelopathy which proved the usefulness of MRI. Clin Neurol 27: 1266–1269 (English abstract)Google Scholar
  80. Okada Y, Matsuoka Y, Yoshikawa K, Machida T, Iio M (1987) Spinal cord disease and MRI diagnosis. Neurological Surgery 15: 929–933 (English abstract)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Okazawa H, Inoue K, Yoshikawa K, Mannen T (1986) Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal lesions in multiple sclerosis. Clin Neurol 26: 1157–1164 (English abstract)Google Scholar
  82. Paushter DM, Modic MT, Masaryk TJ (1985)) Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine: applications and limitations. Radiol Clin North Am 23: 551–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Pech P, Haughton VM (1985) Lumbar intervertebral disc: correlative MR and anatomic study. Radiology 156: 699–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Pettersson H, Larsson EM, Holtas S, Croqvist S, Egund N, Zygmunt S, Brattstrom H (1988) MR imaging of the cervical spine in rheumatoid arthritis. AJNR 9: 573–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Pojunas K, Williams AL, Daniels DL, Haughton VM (1984) Syringomyelia and hydromyelia: magnetic resonance evaluation. Radiology 153: 679–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Quencer RM, Sheldon JJ, Post MJD, Diaz BD, Montalvo BM, Green BA, Eismont FJ (1986) MRI of the chronically injured spinal cord. AJR 147: 125–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Ramsey RG, Zacharias CE (1985)) MR imaging of the spine after radiation therapy: easily recognizable effects. AJNR 6: 247–251Google Scholar
  88. Rebner M, Gebarski SS (1985) Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord hemangioblastoma. AJNR 6: 287–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Rodziewicz GS, Kaufman B, Spetzler RF (1984) Diagnosis of sacral perineural cysts by nuclear magnetic resonance. Surg Neurol 22: 50–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Roosen N, Dietrick U, Nicola N, Irlich G, Gahlen D, Stork W (1987) MR imaging of calcified herniated thoracic disc. JCAT 11: 733–735Google Scholar
  91. Ross JS, Perez-Reyes N, Masaryk TJ, Bohlman H, Modic MT (1987) Thoracic disk herniation: MR imaging. Radiology 165: 511–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Rubin JB, Enzmann DR (1987) Imaging of spinal CSF pulsation by 2DFT MR: significance during clinical imaging. AJR 148: 973–982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Samuelsson L, Bergstrom K, Thuomas K-A, Hemmingsson A, Wallensten R (1987) MR imaging of syringohydromyelia and Chiari malformations in myelomeningocele patients with scoliosis. AJNR 8: 539–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Sasaki M, Yamasaki Y, Higashida N (1987) A study of magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbal spine. Cent Jap J Orthop Traumat 30: 89–91 (English abstract)Google Scholar
  95. Scotti G, Scialfi G, Colombo N, Landoni L (1985) MR imaging of intradural extramedullary tumors of the cervical spine. JCAT 9: 1037–1041Google Scholar
  96. Scotti G, Scialfa G, Colombo N, Landoni L (1987) Magnetic resonance diagnosis of intramedullary tumors of the spinal cord. Neuroradiology 29: 130–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Scotti G, Scialfi G, Landoni L, Pieralli S (1984) Nuclear magnetic resonance in the diagnosis of syringomyelia. J Neuroradiol 11: 239–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Sherman JL, Barkovich AJ, Citrin CM (1987) The MR appearance of syringomyelia: new observations. AJR 148: 381–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Sherman JL, Citrin CM, Gangarosa RE, Bowen BJ (1986) The MR appearance of CSF pulsations in the spinal canal. AJNR 7: 879–884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Solomon RA, Handler MS, Sedelli RV, Stein BM (1987) Intramedullary melanotic schwannoma of the cervicomedullary junction. Neurosurgery 20: 36–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Steinmetz ND (1987) MRI of the lumbar spine. A practical approach to image interpretation. Slack, Thorofare NJGoogle Scholar
  102. Suojanen J, Wang A, Winston KR (1988) Pantopaque mimicking spinal lipoma: MR pitfall. JCAT 12: 346–348Google Scholar
  103. Takahashi M, Sakamoto Y, Miyawaki M, Bussaka H (1987) Increased MR signal intensity secondary to chronic cervical cord compression. Neuroradiology 29: 550–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Tashiro K, Ito K, Maruo Y, Homma S, Yamada Y, Fujiki N, Moriwaka F (1987) MR imaging of spinal cord in Devic disease. JCAT 11: 516–517Google Scholar
  105. Teresi LM, Lufkin RB, Reicher MA, Moffit BJ, Vinnela FD, Wilson GM, Bentson JR, Hanafee WN (1987) Asymptomatic degenerative disc disease and spondylosis of the cervical spine: MR imaging. Radiology 164: 83–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Thron A, Schroth G (1986) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of diastematomyelia. Neuroradiology 28: 371–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Valk J (1988) Gd-DTPA in MR of spinal lesions. AJNR 9: 345–350Google Scholar
  108. Wilberger JE, Maroon JC, Prostko ER, Baghai P, Beckman I, Deeb ZL II (1987) Magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative neurosonography in syringomyelia. Neurosurgery 20: 599–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Williams AL, Haughton VM, Pojunas KW, Daniels DL, Kilgore DP (1987) Differentiation of intramedullary neoplasms and cyst by MR. AJR 149: 159–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Yoshikawa K (1984) MRI diagnosis of spine and spinal cord diseases. Journal of Medical Imagings 4: 1119–1125 (Japanese)Google Scholar
  111. Yoshikawa K (1985) MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) in the diagnosis of syringomyelia. Neurological Medicine 23: 16–23 (English abstract)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koreaki Mori
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryKochi Medical SchoolKohasu, Okoh-cho, Nankoku, Kochi, 783Japan

Personalised recommendations