Trace Elements in Total Parenteral Nutrition

  • Khursheed N. Jeejeebhoy
Conference paper


Cotzias (1) defined an essential trace element as one which has the following characteristics:
  1. (1)

    Present in healthy tissues of all living things.

  2. (2)

    Constant tissue concentration from one animal to the next.

  3. (3)

    Withdrawal leads to a reproducible functional and/or structural abnormality.

  4. (4)

    Addition of the element prevents the abnormality.

  5. (5)

    The abnormality is associated with a specific biochemical change.

  6. (6)

    The biochemical change is prevented and/or cured along with the observed clinical abnormality.



Total Parenteral Nutrition Zinc Deficiency Copper Deficiency Selenium Deficiency Sulfite Oxidase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khursheed N. Jeejeebhoy
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of GastroenterologyToronto General HospitalTorontoCanada

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