A Pathoanatomical Study of the Endolymphatic Sac in Ménière’s Disease

  • Yoshiro Yazawa
  • Masaaki Kitahara


It has been well established by anatomic and tomographic reports [1, 2] that the endolymphatic sac (ELS) and vestibular aqueduct (VA), appear in great varieties of size, position, course, and form. These irregularities are particularly pronounced in Ménière’s disease, with tomographic studies revealing the VA to be filiform, stenotic, or nonvisualized in more than 50% of all Ménière’s cases [3, 4]. Such tomographic findings were used by Stahle and Wilbrand [4, 5] in the development of a system classifying the degree of peri-aqueductal pneumatization in Ménière’s disease into 3 grades: large cell pneumatization, small pneumatization, and non-pneumatization.


Of28 Case Jugular Bulb Otic Capsule Endolymphatic Hydrops Posterior Semicircular Canal 


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© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshiro Yazawa
  • Masaaki Kitahara

There are no affiliations available

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