The Development of Computer Animation in Various Organizations

  • Nadia Magnenat Thalmann
  • Daniel Thalmann
Part of the Computer Science Workbench book series (WORKBENCH)


During the period 1963–1967, a dozen computer films were made at Bell Telephone Laboratories. Apart from Ken Knowlton [1964,1965], the most important computer animators at Bell Labs were:
  • E. Zajac [1966], who made the first computer-animated film Two-gyro gravity-gradient attitude control system in 1963.

  • F. Sinden [1967], who made Force, Mass and Motion, a film that demonstrates Newton’s laws of motion; the programming language was FORTRAN.

  • Huggins and Weiner, who made Harmonic Phasors, a film concerning the composition of complicated periodic waveforms; the film was produced by programming in PMACRO [Alexander and Huggins 1967].


Computer Animation Attitude Control System Frame Buffer Production House Definition Mode 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokoyo 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadia Magnenat Thalmann
    • 1
  • Daniel Thalmann
    • 2
  1. 1.MIRALab, CUIUniversity of GenevaGenevaSwitzerland
  2. 2.Computer Graphics LabSwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyLausanneSwitzerland

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