Microvascular Flow Disturbances: Rheological Aspects

  • Peter Gaehtgens


Although considerable information is available concerning the ultrastructure and histology of the terminal vascular bed for humans, our understanding of the dynamics of this system rests largely upon experimental studies in animals. In situ measurements of microvessel behavior in man have been made in superficial structures, such as the eye [1], the nailfold or the digits [2], or the skin in general and dealt in the main with structural alternations in particular vessels. The most meaningful measurements in patients that dealt with functional mechanisms were concerned with blood-tissue exchange [3].


Shear Rate Apparent Viscosity Flow Disturbance Microvascular Network Viscous Resistance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Reneman RS, Slaaf DW, Lindbom L, Tangelder GJ, Arfors KE (1980) Muscle blood flow disturbances produced by simultaneously elevated venous and total muscle tissue pressures. Microvasc Res 20: 307–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thulesius O, Johnson PC (1966) Pre- and postcapillary resistance in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 210: 869–872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schmid-Schönbein H (1976) Critical closing pressure or yield shear stress as the cause of disturbed peripheral circulation? Acta Chir Scand Suppl 465: 10–19Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reinke W, Johnson PC, Gaehtgens P (1986) Effect of shear rate variation on apparent viscosity of human blood in tubes of 29 to 94 μm diameter. Circ Res 59: 124–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Reinke W, Gaehtgens P, Johnson PC (1987) Blood viscosity in small tubes: effect of shear rate, red cell aggregation, and sedimentation. Am J Physiol 253: H540–H547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gaehtgens P (1987) Tube flow of human blood at low shear: the effect of red cell aggregation on apparent viscosity. Clin Hemorheol 7: 399 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bagge U, Blixt A, Braide M (1986) Macromodel experiments on the effect of walladhering white cells on flow resistance. Clin Hemorheol 6: 365–372Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dahlberg B (1979) Transcapillary solute exchange in skeletal muscle after injury and during shock. Acta Physiol Scand [Suppl] 472: 1–82Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lipowsky HH, Usami S, Chien S (1980) In vivo measurement of “apparent viscosity” and microvessel hematocrit in the mesentery of the cat. Microvasc Res 19: 297–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lipowsky HH, Kovalcheck S, Zweifach BW (1978) The distribution of blood rheological parameters in the microvasculature of cat mesentery. Circ Res 43: 738–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gaehtgens P (1980) Flow of blood through narrow capillaries: rheological mechanisms determining capillary hematocrit and apparent viscosity. Biorheology 17: 183–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fahraeus R, Lindqvist T (1931) The viscosity of the blood in narrow capillary tubes. Am J Physiol 26: 562–568Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fahraeus R (1928) Die Strömungsverhältnisse und die Verteilung der Blutzellen im Gefäßsystem. Klin Wschr 7: 100–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gaehtgens P (1987) Tube flow of human blood at near zero shear. Biorheology 24: 367–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kiesewetter H, Radtke H, Schmid-Schönbein H (1981) The yield shear stress of blood in branched models of the microcirculation. Effect of hematocrit and plasma macromolecules. Bibl Haemat 47: 14–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Merrill EW, Benis AM, Gilliland ER, Sherwood TK, Salzman EW (1965) Pressureflow relation of human blood in hollow fibers at low flow rates. J Appl Physiol 20: 954–967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Meiselman HJ, Merrill EW, Salzman EW, Gilliland ER, Pelletier GA (1967) Effect of dextran on rheology of human blood: low shear viscometry. J Appl Physiol 22: 480–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Klitzman B, Johnson PC (1982) Capillary network geometry and red cell distribution in hamster cremaster muscle. Am J Physiol 242: H211–H219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fenton BM, Carr RT, Cokelet GR (1985) Nonuniform red cell distribution in 20-100 micron bifurcations. Microvasc Res 29: 103–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zarda PR, Chien S, Skalak R (1977) Interaction of viscous incompressible fluid with an elastic body. Comp Meth Fluid Struct Int Prob 26: 65–82Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Secomb TW, Skalak R, Zkaya N, Gross JF (1986) Flow of axisymmetric red blood cells in narrow capillaries. J Fluid Mech 163: 405–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Secomb TW (1987) Flow-dependent rheological properties of blood in capillaries. Microvasc Res 34: 46–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bagge U, Amundson B, Lauritzen C (1980) White blood cell deform ability and plugging of skeletal muscle capillaries in hemorrhagic shock. Acta Physiol Scand 108: 159–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gaehtgens P, Ley K, Pries AR, Müller R (1985) Mutual interaction between leukocytes and microvascular blood flow. Progr Appl Microcirc 7: 15–28Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Engler RL, Schmid-Schönbein GW, Pavelec RS (1983) Leukocyte capillary plugging in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in the dog. Am J Pathol 111: 98–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bagge U (1976) Granulocyte rheology. Blood Cells 2: 481–490Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ley K, Pries AR, Gaehtgens P (1987) Distribution of leukocytes in microvascular networks. Pflügers Arch Ges Physiol [Suppl 1] 408: R21 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gaehtgens P (1987) Pathways and interactions of white cells in the microcirculation. Progr Appl Microcirc 12: 51–66Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nobis U, Pries AR, Cokelet GR, Gaehtgens P (1985) Radial distribution of white cells during blood flow in small tubes. Microvasc Res 29: 295–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Goldsmith HL, Spain S (1984) Margination of leukocytes in blood flow through small tubes. Microvasc Res 27: 204–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schmid-Schönbein GW, Usami S, Skalak R, Chien S (1980) The interaction of leukocytes and erythrocytes in capillary and postcapillary vessels. Microvasc Res 19: 45–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Gaehtgens
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyFreie Universität BerlinBerlin 33Federal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations