Multiple Organ Failure: Clinical Implications to Macro- and Microcirculation

  • Konrad Messmer
  • Uwe Kreimeieri
  • Frithjof Hammersen


As result of improved primary resuscitation, a smaller number of all patients suffering from trauma, multiple injuries, and shock succumb within the first critical hours, except those with lethal injury to the vital organ. However, even though tltese patients present with stable hemodynamic conditions for days or weeks after the injury, dysfunction of one or several of their organs becomes apparent and these patients eventually die from late complications of the primary insult, in sepsis and multiple organ failure (MOF) [6, 37]. Baker [4] has demonstrated that age, severity of the injury, shock with arterial pressures below 80 mmHg, and, most importantly, the duration of shock are the crucial factors in the development of MOF. MOF can be the end-stage of shock in both low-flow and high-flow states. As a common denominator of all forms of shock appears the maldistribution of cardiac output, with critical reduction of nutritional blood flow in the vital organs and initiation of shock-specific microcirculatory disturbances [28, 36].


Septic Shock Multiple Organ Failure Focal Ischemia Microcirculatory Flow Multiple Organ System Failure 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Konrad Messmer
    • 1
  • Uwe Kreimeieri
    • 1
  • Frithjof Hammersen
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Experimental SurgeryUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelberg 1Federal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Department of AnatomyTechnical University of MunichMunichFederal Republic of Germany

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