The fundamental structures of the retina and visual cells in relation to their functions were established by the endeavor of light microscopists (e.g., Hannover 1840; Polyak 1941, 1957; Walls 1942). The application of electron-microscopic techniques to this field markedly enriched this knowledge, revealing the subcellular structures of visual cells and their synaptic relations to other nervous elements (Sjöstrand 1953a, b, 1956, 1961; Moody and Robertson 1960; Tokuyasu and Yamada 1959; Nilsson 1965; for further references: see Dunn 1973; Ehinger 1982).
KeywordsOuter Segment Bipolar Cell Amacrine Cell Horizontal Cell Visual Cell
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