Originating from the common ancester, Coelenterata, the evolution of the Metazoa has proceeded along two animal series, Protostomia and Deuterostomia. The protostomian series includes Platyhelminthes (planarians, tapeworms, etc.), Annelida (earthworms, clamworms, etc.), and, as more advanced forms, Mollusca and Arthropods. The deuterostomian series includes Echinodermata (seaurchins, starfish, etc.), Protochordata (seasquirts, amphioxus, etc.), and Vertebrata (Fig. 11.1).
KeywordsEndocrine Cell Luteinizing Hormone Release Hormone Cerebral Ganglion Juxtaglomerular Cell Corpus Cardiacum
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