A Quadrilateral Membrane Element with Rotational Freedoms

  • P. G. Bergan
  • M. K. Nygård
Conference paper


A new quadrilateral membrane element is derived using the socalled Free Formulation of the finite element method which has been proposed by the authors. The element has two translational and one rotational freedom per corner node. It is based on nonconforming displacement functions, still the element satisfies the convergence requirements including the patch test. Numerical studies show that the accuracy of the element is exceptionally good. It is particularly well suited for problems with extensive inplane bending (e.g. beams, webs, stiffeners) and as the membrane component in flat shell elements.


Stiffness Matrix Patch Test Membrane Element Rotational Freedom Corner Node 
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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. G. Bergan
    • 1
  • M. K. Nygård
    • 2
  1. 1.Veritas ResearchHøvikNorway
  2. 2.VeritecHøvikNorway

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