Challenges in the Application of Graphics Technology to the Management of Geographic Information

  • I. K. Crain
  • C. L. MacDonald
Conference paper


A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, retrieve and display data which are referenced to geographic locations (Poiker and Crain, 1985). Such systems are distinct from automated cartography where the primary goal is the production of printed graphic output. The goal of a GIS is to manage geographic data, and graphic output represents only one mode of data retrieval and only a subset of the system functions, which may include a wide range of spatial as well as non-geometric data manipulation. Graphic output capabilities have often been developed as an after-thought to a GIS which was primarily designed for tabular statistical reporting. In practice, however, the output of graphic images in the form of some sort of “map”, almost always forms part of the retrieval repertoire of a modern GIS.


Environment Canada Graphie Output Desk Reference Colour Screen Graphic Screen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. K. Crain
    • 1
  • C. L. MacDonald
    • 1
  1. 1.Canada Land Data Systems, Lands DirectorateEnvironment CanadaOttawaCanada

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