Methods of Examining the Posterior Pole of the Fundus

  • Takashi Tokoro


Several methods have been used to examine the fundus: direct ophthalmoscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, and slit lamp biomicroscopy. To examine the posterior pole in patients with pathologic myopia, indirect binocular ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp microscopy with an accessory lens are useful. Photographs taken with a fundus camera are used to record fundus changes.


Slit Lamp Stereoscopic Image Slit Lamp Biomicroscopy Indocyanine Green Angiography Choroidal Vessel 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takashi Tokoro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyTokyo Medical and Dental University School of MedicineBunkyo-ku TokyoJapan

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