Imaging Biological Specimens

  • Motoichi Ohtsu


Biological specimens have been investigated with optical microscopes such as the differential interference contrast microscope and the confocal microscope. Although they provide a way to monitor the biological process in real time [1], their resolution is limited by the diffraction of the light. They have also been studied by electron microscopes, which offer high resolution. However, electron microscopes have several disadvantages such as:
  1. 1.

    loss of surface information due to the use of special sample preparation techniques such as ultra thin slicing employed in transmission electron microscopy and surface coating used in the case of scanning electron microscopy;

  2. 2.

    destructive observation;

  3. 3.

    the requirement of a high vacuum.



Growth Cone Neural Process Bright Region Open Arrow Electric Field Vector 
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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Motoichi Ohtsu
    • 1
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and EngineeringTokyo Institute of TechnologyMidori-ku YokohamaJapan

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