Instrumentation of Near-Field Optical Microscopy

  • Motoichi Ohtsu


With the probes whose fabrication was described in Chap. 3 based on the criteria concepts described in Chap. 2, the near-field optical microscope (NOM) can generally be operated under two different modes, called the collectionmode (c-mode) NOM and the illumination-mode (i-mode) NOM. Figure 6.1 gives a schematic illustration of the two different modes of operation. In c-mode NOM (Fig. 6.1a), the light is incident on the sample at total internal reflection. The three-dimensional optical near field generated and localized on the sample surface is scattered by a probe, and part of the scattered field is collected through the same probe. There exist optical near fields from the planar background and from the sample. However, no optical near field from the background will be picked by the probe when probe parameters such as apex diameter and foot diameter are subwavelength and comparable to the size of the sample feature. The principle of operation of i-mode NOM (Fig. 6.1b) is similar, except that the probe acts as a generator of the optical near field which illuminates the sample surface. The field scattered by the sample is collected by conventional optical elements. In either c-mode or i-mode, probe parameters such as apex diameter, foot diameter (for these definitions, see Chap. 2), and sample-probe separation determine the detection efficiency, the obtainable resolvable smallest feature of the sample, and the image contrast.


Schematic Illustration Step Height Scattered Field Fiber Probe Raster Scanning 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M. Naya, R. Micheletto, S. Mononbe, R. Uma Maheswari, M. Ohtsu, Appl. Opt. 36, 1681 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Uma Maheswari, S. Mononobe, H. Tatsumi, Y. Katayama, M. Ohtsu, Optical Review 3, 463 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Vaez-Iravani, R. Toledo-Crow, Y. Chen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 742 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Muramatsu, N. Chiba, K. Homma, K. Nakajima, T. Ataka, S. Ohta, A. Kusumi, M. Fujihira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(24), 3245 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miyura, A. Miyamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2615 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Zvyagin, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 133, 339 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Zvyagin, J. D. White, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 22, 955 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Carminatti, A. Madrazo, M. Neito-Vesperinas, J.-J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82(2), 501 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Jang, W. Jhe, Opt. Lett. 21, 236 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Kobayashi, O. Watanuki, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(2), 804 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. J. Chen, Introduction to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, (Oxford University Press, New York, 1993)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. K. Leong, C. C. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1432 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. W. P. Hsu, M. Lee, B. S. Deaver, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3177 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Karrai, R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y. H. Chuang, C. J. Wang, J. Y. Huang, C. L. Pan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3312 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    W. A. Atia, C. C. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 405 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. G. T. Ruiter, J. A. Veerman, K. O. van der Werf, N. F. van Hulst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 28 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. V. Zvyagin, J. D. White, M. Kourogi, M. Kozuma, M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2541 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inoue, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotony, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    T. Saiki, M. Ohtsu, K. Jang, W. Jhe, Opt. Lett. 21, 674 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    R. Uma Maheswari, S. Mononobe, M. Ohtsu, Appl. Opt. 31, 6740 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Motoichi Ohtsu
    • 1
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and EngineeringTokyo Institute of TechnologyMidori-ku YokohamaJapan

Personalised recommendations