In Situ Nick Translation

  • Satoshi Hashimoto
  • Takashi Kanematsu
Part of the Springer Lab Manuals book series (SLM)


Nick (DNA single strand break) have been implicated to play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation (Ogawa 1980), cell differentiation (Appleby 1977) and cell death (Peitsch 1993). Nick translation detects nicks in DNA by adding nucleotides to 3’-hydroxyl ends in the presence of a template, extending the strand in the 5’ to 3’ direction. (Fig. 1) In situ nick translation (ISNT)(Dawson 1980) is application of nick translation on frozen sections or formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues.


Proliferate Cell Nuclear Antigen Human Colorectal Cancer Nick Translation Fresh Freeze Sample Paraffin Embed Sample 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams J.C. (1981) Heavy metal intensification of DAB-based HRP reaction product. J Histochem Cytochem 29: 775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appleby D.W., Modak S.P. (1977) DNA degradation in terminally differentiating lens fiber from chick embroys. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 5579–5583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dawson B.A., Lough J (1988) Immunocytochemical localization of transient DNA strand breaks in differentiating myotubes using in situ nick-translation. Dev Biol 127:362–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hashimoto S, Koji T, Niu J, Kanematsu T, Nakane P.K. (1995) Differential staining of DNA strand breaks in dying cells by non-radioactive in situ nick translation. Arch Histol Cytol 58:161–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hashimoto S, Koji T, Kohara N, Kanematsu T, Nakane P.K. (1997) Frequency of apoptosis relates inversely to invasiveness and metastatic activity in human colorectal cancer. Virchows Arch 431:241–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Koji T (1996) Non-radioactive in situ nick translation: A useful molecular histochemical tool to detect single-stranded DNA breaks. Acta Histochem Cytochem 29:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ogawa T, Okazaki T (1980) Discontinuous DNA replication. Annu Rev Biochem 49: 421–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Peitsch M.C., Muller C, Tschopp J (1993) DNA fragmentation during apoptosis is caused by frequent single-strand cuts. Nucl Acids Res 21:4206–4209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Satoshi Hashimoto
    • 1
  • Takashi Kanematsu
    • 1
  1. 1.Second Department of SurgeryNagasaki University School of MedicineNagasakiJapan

Personalised recommendations