Effects of Forest Fragmentation on the Behavior of Bornean Gibbons

  • Teruki Oka
  • Ecep Iskandar
  • Dadang Iman Ghozali
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 140)


According to a report compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC, 1996), the remaining closed-forest area (that is, the area having a tree-crown cover of over 30%) in Indonesia is about 117.9 million ha, and is being reduced at a rate of 1.2 million ha per year, due to forest fires and clearing for agriculture and plantations. However, the WCMC report does not mean that a vast forest has been gradually reduced from its edges inward. In other words, we must remember that deterioration of forests means not only gradual reductions in area but also division into smaller, isolated fragments (Harris 1980, 1984, Wilcove et al. 1986, Shafer 1990).


Home Range Tropical Rainforest Forest Fragmentation Fragmented Forest Solitary Male 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abensperg-Traun M, Smith GT, Arnold GW, Steven DE (1996) The effects of habitat fragmentation and livestock-grazing on animal communities in remnants of gimlet Eucalyptus salubris woodland in the Western Australian wheatbelt. I. Arthropods. J Appl Ecol 33:1281–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allendorf FW, Leary RF (1986) Heterozygosity and fitness in natural populations of animals. In: Soulé ME (ed) Conservation biology: the science of scarcity and diversity. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, pp 57–76Google Scholar
  3. Bellamy PE, Hinsley SA, Newton I (1996) Local extinctions and recolonisations of passerine bird populations in small woods. Oecologia 108:64–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brockelman WY, Reichard U, Treesucon U, Raemaekers JJ (1998) Dispersal, pair formation and social structure in gibbons (Hylobates lar). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 42:329–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buechner M (1987) A geometric model of vertebrate dispersal: tests and implications. Ecol-ogy 68:310–318Google Scholar
  6. Carpenter CR (1940) A field study in Siam of the behavior and social relations of the gibbon Hylobates lar. Comp Psychol Monogr 16:1–212Google Scholar
  7. Chivers DJ, Raemaekers JJ (1986) Natural and synthetic diets of Malayan gibbons. In: Else JG, Lee PC (eds) Primate ecology and conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 115–123Google Scholar
  8. Chivers DJ (1991) Species differences in tolerance to environmental change. In: Box HO (ed) Primate responses to environmental change. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 5–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dunbar RIM (1988) Primate social systems. Croom Helm, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Echelle AF, Echelle AA, Edds DR (1989) Conservation genetics of a spring-dwelling desert fish, the Pecos gambusia (Gambusia nobilis Poeciidae). Consery Biol 3:59–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ellefson, JO (1974) A natural history of the white-handed gibbon in the Malayan Peninsula. In: Rumbaugh DM (ed) Gibbon and siamang vol 3, Karger, Basel, pp 1–136.Google Scholar
  12. Fahrig L, Merriam G (1994) Conservation of fragmented populations. Consery Biol 8:50–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Forys EA, Humphrey R (1996) Home range and movements of the lower keys marsh rabbit in a highly fragmented habitat. J Mammal 77:1042–1048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Geissmann T (1995) Gibbon systematics and species identification. Int Zoo News, 42:467–501Google Scholar
  15. Gittins SP (1980) Territorial behavior in the agile gibbon. Int J Primatol 1:381–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gittins SP (1983) Use of the forest canopy by the agile gibbon. Folia Primatol 40:134–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gittins SP, Raemaekers JJ (1980) Siamang, lar and agile gibbons. In: Chivers DJ (ed) Malayan forest primates: ten year’s study in tropical rainforest. Plenum, New York, pp 63–105.Google Scholar
  18. Grand TI (1984) Motion economy within the canopy: four strategies for mobility. In: Rodman PS, Cant JGH (eds) Adaptations for foraging in nonhuman primates. Columbia Univer-sity Press, New York, pp 54–72Google Scholar
  19. Harris LD (1980) Forest and wildlife dynamics in the southeast. Trans North American Wildlife Natural Resource Conference 45:307–322Google Scholar
  20. Harris LD (1984) The fragmented forest: island biogeography theory and the preservation of biotic diversity. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  21. Heywood VH, Stuart SN (1992) Species extinctions in tropical forests. In: Whitmore TC, Sayer JA (eds) Tropical deforestation and species extinction. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 91–117Google Scholar
  22. Kilpatric CW (1981) Genetic structure of insular populations. In: Smith MH, Joule JJ (eds) Mammalian population genetics. University of Georgia Press, Athens, pp 28–59Google Scholar
  23. Kiyono Y, Hastaniah (1997) Slash-and-burn agriculture and succeeding vegetation in East Kalimantan. PUSREHUT Special Publication vol 6, Mulawarman University, Samarinda, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  24. Kleiman DG (1977) Monogamy in mammals. Q Rev Biol 52:39–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lande R, Barrowclough GF (1987) Effective population size, genetic variation, and their use in population management. In: Soulé ME (ed) Viable populations for conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 87–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leighton DR (1987) Gibbons: territoriality and monogamy. In: Smuts BB, Cheney D, Seyfarth R, Wrangham R, Struhsaker T (eds) Primate societies. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 135–145Google Scholar
  27. Leighton M, Leighton DR (1983) Vertebrate responses to fruiting seasonality within a Bornean rainforest. In: Sutton SL, Whitmore TC, Chadwick AC (eds) Tropical rainforest: ecology and management. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 181–196Google Scholar
  28. MacKinnon J, MacKinnon K (1977) The formation of a new gibbon group. Primates 18:701–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Medway L (1972) Phenology of a tropical rainforest in Malaya. Biol J Linn Soc 4:117–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mitani JC (1984) The behavioral regulation of monogamy in gibbons (Hylobates muelleri). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 15:225–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mitani JC (1990) Demography of agile gibbons (Hylobates agilis). Int J Primatol 11:411–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mitton JB (1993) Theory and data pertinent to the relationship between heterozygosity and fitness. In: Thornhill NW (ed) The natural history of inbreeding and outbreeding. Uni-versity of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 17–41Google Scholar
  33. Pimm SL (1991) The balance of nature? ecological issues in the conservation of species and communities. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  34. Pusey AE (1980) Inbreeding avoidance in chimpanzees. Anim Behav 28:543–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Redpath SM (1995) Habitat fragmentation and the individual: tawny owls Strix aluco in woodland patches. J Anim Ecol 64:652–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rodman P (1978) Diets, densities and distributions of Bornean primates. In: Montgomery GG (ed) The ecology of arboreal folivores, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., pp 465–478Google Scholar
  37. Saunders DA, Hobbs RJ, Margules CR (1991) Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: a review. Consery Biol 5:18–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schnell GD, Selander RK (1981) Environmental and morphological correlates of genetic variation in mammals. In: Smith MH, Joule JJ (eds) Mammalian population genetics. University of Georgia Press, Athens, pp 60–99Google Scholar
  39. Schonewald-Cox CM, Buechner M (1992) Park protection and public roads. In: Fiedler PL, Jain SK (eds) Conservation biology: the theory and practice of nature conservation, preservation, and management. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 373–396Google Scholar
  40. Shafer CL (1990) Nature reserves: island theory and conservation practice. Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  41. Shields WM (1982) Philopatry, inbreeding, and the evolution of sex. State University of New York, AlbanyGoogle Scholar
  42. Smith GT, Arnold GW, Sarre S, Abensperg-Traun M, Steven DE (1996) The effects of habitat fragmentation and livestock grazing on animal communities in remnants of gimlet Eucalyptus salubris woodland in the Western Australian wheatbelt. II. Lizards. J Appl Ecol 33:1302–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stamps JA, Buechner M, Krishnan VV (1987) The effects of edge permeability and habitat geometry on emigration from patches of habitat. Am Nat 129:533–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stiles FG (1988) Altitudinal movements of birds on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica: implications for conservation. In: Almeda F, Pringle CM (eds) Tropical rainforests: diversity and conservation. pp 243–258Google Scholar
  45. Temerin LA, Cant JGH (1983) The evolutionary divergence of Old World monkeys and apes. Am Nat 122:335–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tilson RI (1981) Family formation strategies of Kloss’s gibbons. Folia Primatol 35:259–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. WCMC (1996) Forest statistics: forests for life campaign WWF/WCMC 1996 Google Scholar
  48. Wheelwright NT (1983) Fruits and the ecology of resplendent quetzals. Auk 100:286–301Google Scholar
  49. Whitington C, Treesucon U (1991) Selection and treatment of food plants by white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Nat Hist Bull Siam Soc 39:111–122.Google Scholar
  50. Wilcove DS, MacMillan M, Winston KC (1986) Habitat fragmentation in the temperate zone. In: Soulé ME (ed) Conservation biology: the science scarcity and diversity. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, pp 237–256Google Scholar
  51. Wittenberger JE, Tilson RL (1980) The evolution of monogamy: hypotheses and evidence. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 11:197–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teruki Oka
  • Ecep Iskandar
  • Dadang Iman Ghozali

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations