Mechanism of Changes in the Kenyah’s Swidden System:Explanation in Terms of Agricultural Intensification Theory

  • Makoto Inoue
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 140)


According to the FAO (1995, 1997), 12 594 000 ha of tropical forests diminished annually in the 1990s. The main factors of tropical deforestation are slash and burn agriculture, reclamation of farmland, conversion to pasture, industrial wood felling, firewood collecting, and illegal logging. Moreover, the land tenure system, economic growth, and population increase have been indicated as underlying causes of tropical deforestation. In this manner, most of the causes of deforestation seem to have been made clear (Brown and Pearce 1994, Sponsel et al. 1996), even though discussion on swidden agriculture or shifting cultivation still remains controversial.


Labor Productivity Secondary Forest Land Productivity Fallow Period Upland Rice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Boserup E (1965) The conditions of agricultural growth.George Allen &Unwin Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Brookfield HC (1972) Intensification and disintensification in Pacific agriculture. Pacific Viewpoint 15:30–48Google Scholar
  3. Brown K, Pearce DW (eds) (1994) The causes of tropical deforestation—the economic and statistical analysis of factors giving rise to the loss of the tropical forests. UCL Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Colfer CJP (1983) Change and indigenous agroforestry in East Kalimantan. Borneo Res Bull 15(1):3–21 and 15(2):69–87Google Scholar
  5. Conklin H (1957) Hanunoo agriculture. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  6. Conklin H (1961) The study of shifting cultivation. Curr Anthropol 2(1):27–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dove M (1981) Swidden systems and their potential role in agricultural development — a case-study from Kalimantan. PRISMA, 21:81–100Google Scholar
  8. FAO (1995) Forest resources assessment 1990—Global synthesis (FAO Forestry Paper No.124). FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  9. FAO (1997) State of the World’s Forest 1997. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  10. FAO Forestry Department (1985) Changes in shifting cultivation in Africa. Unasylva 30 (150):40–50Google Scholar
  11. Geertz C (1963) Agricultural involution. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  12. Gelder BV, O’Keefe P (1995) The new forester. Intermediate Technology Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Greenland DJ (1974) Evolution and development of different types of shifting cultivation (FAO Soils Bulletin No.24). FAO, Rome, pp 5–13Google Scholar
  14. Hadi S, Hadi S, Hidayat R (1985) Indonesia. In: Swidden cultivation in Asia, Volume Three. UNESCO regional office for education in Asia and Pacific, Bankok, pp 74–149Google Scholar
  15. Inoue M (1988) Socio-economic mechanism of deforestation in the tropics (in Japanese).Forest Econ 41(10):9–21Google Scholar
  16. Inoue M (1990) Changes in the swidden system practiced by the Kenyah Dayak (in Japanese with English summary). J Southeast Asian Studies 28 (2):222–255Google Scholar
  17. Inoue M, Lahj ie AM (1990) Dynamics of swidden agriculture in East Kalimantan. Agroforestry Syst 12:269–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jordan CF (1985) Nutrient cycling in tropical forest ecosystems. Wiley, Chichester, pp 88–146Google Scholar
  19. Kano H (1982) Landless households in Indonesia. In: Takigawa T (ed) Low income classes of the rural area in Southeast Asia (in Japanese). Institute for Asian Economic Develop-ment, Tokyo, pp 77–114Google Scholar
  20. Kartawinata K, Jessup T, Vayda AP, Colfer CJP (1984) The impact of development on interactions between people and forests in East Kalimantan —a comparison of two areas of Kenyah Dayak settlement. Environmentalist 4 (Suppl 7):87–95Google Scholar
  21. Kunstadter P (1978) Subsistence agricultural cconomies of Lua’ and Karen hill farmers, Mae Saring district, Northern Thailand. In: Kunstadter P et al. (ed) Farmers in the forest. East-West Center, Hawaii, pp 74–133Google Scholar
  22. Peluso NL, Vandergeest P, Potter L (1995) Social aspects of forestry in Southeast Asia — a review of postwar trends in the scholarly literature. J Southeast Asia Studies 26(1):196–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ruthenberg H (1976) Farming systems in the tropics. Clarendon, Oxford, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  24. Sasaki T (1970) Swidden agriculture in the tropics (in Japanese). Kokonshoin, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  25. Spencer JS (1967) Shifting cultivation in Southeastern Asia. University of California Press,BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  26. Sponsel LE, Headland TN, Bailey RC (eds) (1996) Tropical deforestation—the human dimension. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Takigawa T, Saito H (eds) (1968) Land tenure and rural social structure in Asia. Institute for Asian Economic Development, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  28. Vasey DE (1979) Population and agricultural intensity in the humid tropics. Hum Ecol 7 (3):269–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vayda AP (1981) Research in East Kalimantan on interaction between people and forests — a preliminary report. Borneo Res Bull 13(1):3–15Google Scholar
  30. Vayda AP, Pierce CJ, Brotokusumo M (1980) Interactions between people and forest in East Kalimantan. Impact of science on society 30(3):179–190Google Scholar
  31. Watanabe T (1986) Development economics (in Japanese). Nihonhyouronsha, TokyoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Makoto Inoue

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations