GalCer Synthase (Ceramide Galactosyltransferase, CGT)
The multilayer membrane system of myelin ensheathing axons of the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is synthesized and assembled by oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, respectively. The lipid bilayer contributes approximately 70% to 85% of the total myelin mass. The lipid composition is characterized by a high content of cholesterol and glycolipids, of which galactosylceramides (cerebrosides, GalC) and sulfatides, the 3′-sulfoesters of galactosyl-ceramides (sGalC), have been recognized as the dominant components and also oligodendrocyte-speciflc myelin markers. Both are expressed in only a minute amount in kidney. The molar ratio of cholesterohphospholipids (including plasmalogen-phospholipids):galactolipids is between 2:2:1 and 4:3:2 and reasonably stable in different species (human, bovine, and murine myelin).
KeywordsSchwann Cell Myelin Membrane Myelin Lipid Saltatory Conduction Ceramide Galactosyltransferase
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