Intestinal N-Acetylglucosamine 6-O-Sulfotransferase
Intestinal N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase (I-GlcNAc6ST, GST-4, GlcNAc6ST-3) (Lee et al. 1999; Hemmerich and Rosen 2000) is the most recently discovered member of a novel family of carbohydrate sulfotransferases termed galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, or N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferases (GST) (Rosen et al. 1999; Hemmerich and Rosen 2000). This is a class of five enzymes to date that have a type II membrane organization with a short cytoplasmic tail at the N-termi- nus, a transmembrane domain, and a large luminal C-terminal catalytic domain. I- GlcNAc6ST is one of the three N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferases contained in this family; the other two isozymes are the ubiquitous N-acetylglucosamine 6-O- sulfotransferase (GlcNAc6ST, GST-2, CHST-2) (Li and Tedder 1999; Uchimura et al. 1998b,c) and the high endothelial cell N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase (HEC-GlcNAc6ST, GST-3) (Bistrup et al. 1999; Hiraoka et al. 1999). The other two enzymes of this family, chondroitin 6-O-sulfotransferase (C6ST, GST-0) (Fukuta et al. 1995, 1998; Uchimura et al. 1998a; Hemmerich and Rosen 1999) and keratan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase (KSGal6ST, GST-1, CHST-1) (Fukuta et al. 1997; Li and Tedder 1999; Hemmerich and Rosen 2000), facilitate sulfation at C-6 of galactose within the context of N-acetyllactosamine (Habuchi et al. 1996, 1997; Bistrup et al. 1999), with C6ST also catalyzing sulfation at C-6 of N-acetylgalactosamine within chondroitin (Fukuta et al. 1997). The three GlcNAc6ST isozymes exhibit more than 55% similarity to each other on the amino acid level, and protein sequence similarity across the entire enzyme family is more than 40% (Hemmerich and Rosen 2000). As indicated in the nomenclature, the three N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferases show distinct expression patterns. Thus GlcNAc6ST (GST-2) is abundantly expressed in most tissues and cell types (Uchimura et al. 1998; A. Bistrup, S. Hemmerich, and S.D. Rosen, unpublished), whereas HEC-GlcNAc6ST and I-GlcNAc6ST are remarkably restricted to high endothelial cells or intestinal tissue, respectively (Bistrup et al. 1999; Lee et al. 1999).
KeywordsIntestinal Tissue Keratan Sulfate Complete Open Reading Frame Acceptor Specificity Lymphocyte Homing
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