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Intestinal N-Acetylglucosamine 6-O-Sulfotransferase

  • Stefan Hemmerich

Abstract

Intestinal N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase (I-GlcNAc6ST, GST-4, GlcNAc6ST-3) (Lee et al. 1999; Hemmerich and Rosen 2000) is the most recently discovered member of a novel family of carbohydrate sulfotransferases termed galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, or N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferases (GST) (Rosen et al. 1999; Hemmerich and Rosen 2000). This is a class of five enzymes to date that have a type II membrane organization with a short cytoplasmic tail at the N-termi- nus, a transmembrane domain, and a large luminal C-terminal catalytic domain. I- GlcNAc6ST is one of the three N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferases contained in this family; the other two isozymes are the ubiquitous N-acetylglucosamine 6-O- sulfotransferase (GlcNAc6ST, GST-2, CHST-2) (Li and Tedder 1999; Uchimura et al. 1998b,c) and the high endothelial cell N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase (HEC-GlcNAc6ST, GST-3) (Bistrup et al. 1999; Hiraoka et al. 1999). The other two enzymes of this family, chondroitin 6-O-sulfotransferase (C6ST, GST-0) (Fukuta et al. 1995, 1998; Uchimura et al. 1998a; Hemmerich and Rosen 1999) and keratan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase (KSGal6ST, GST-1, CHST-1) (Fukuta et al. 1997; Li and Tedder 1999; Hemmerich and Rosen 2000), facilitate sulfation at C-6 of galactose within the context of N-acetyllactosamine (Habuchi et al. 1996, 1997; Bistrup et al. 1999), with C6ST also catalyzing sulfation at C-6 of N-acetylgalactosamine within chondroitin (Fukuta et al. 1997). The three GlcNAc6ST isozymes exhibit more than 55% similarity to each other on the amino acid level, and protein sequence similarity across the entire enzyme family is more than 40% (Hemmerich and Rosen 2000). As indicated in the nomenclature, the three N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferases show distinct expression patterns. Thus GlcNAc6ST (GST-2) is abundantly expressed in most tissues and cell types (Uchimura et al. 1998; A. Bistrup, S. Hemmerich, and S.D. Rosen, unpublished), whereas HEC-GlcNAc6ST and I-GlcNAc6ST are remarkably restricted to high endothelial cells or intestinal tissue, respectively (Bistrup et al. 1999; Lee et al. 1999).

Keywords

Intestinal Tissue Keratan Sulfate Complete Open Reading Frame Acceptor Specificity Lymphocyte Homing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Hemmerich
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Respiratory DiseasesRoche BiosciencePalo AltoUSA
  2. 2.Thios Biotechnology Inc.OaklandUSA

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