β3-Galactosyltransferase-IV (GM1 Synthase)

  • Koichi Furukawa


β3-Galactosyltransferase-IV (β3GalT-IV) is an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of GM2, GD2, and asialo-GM2 to GM1, GD1b, and asialo-GM1 (Gal), respectively (Miyazaki et al. 1997). This step is critical for the synthesis of major complex gangliosides such as GM1, GD1a, GDlb, GT1b, and GQ1b, which are enriched in the nervous system of vertebrates. Therefore, all major complex gangliosides are synthesized via the direct products of this enzyme. The cDNAs of β3GalT-IV were isolated by a eukaryocyte expression cloning system in 1997 (Miyazaki et al. 1997). This enzyme utilizes only glycolipid acceptors, not glycoproteins, and no other enzymes (genes) catalyzing similar functions have been detected to date. In the mouse genome (Mus musculus major histocompatibility locus class II region), a highly homologous gene as an orthologue to rat β3-galactosyltransferase-IV was reported by Rowen et al. (see AF100956, AF110520).


Cholera Toxin Neural Retina Complex Ganglioside High mRNA Expression Level Substrate Specificity Enzyme 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References References

  1. Amado M, Almeida R, Carneiro F, Levery SB, Holmes EH, Nomoto M, Hollingsworth MA, Hassan H, Schwientek T, Nielsen PA, Bennett EP, Clausen H (1998) A family of human β3-galactosyltransferases. Characterization of four members of a UDP-galactose:β-N-acetyl-glucosamine/beta-nacetyl-galactosamine β-1,3-galactosyltransferase family. J Biol Chem 273:12770–12778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Daniotti JL, Martina JA, Zurita AR, Maccioni HJ (1999) Mouse β1,3-galactosyltransferase (GAl/GMl/GD1b synthase): protein characterization, tissue expression, and developmental regulation in neural retina. J Neurosci Res 58:318–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Honke K, Taniguchi N, Makita A (1986) A radioimmune assay of ganglioside GM1 synthase using cholera toxin. Anal Biochem 155:395–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Martina JA, Daniotti JL, Maccioni HJ (2000) GM1 synthase depends on N-glycosylation for enzyme activity and trafficking to the Golgi complex. Neurochem Res 25:725–731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Miyazaki H, Fukumoto S, Okada M, Hasegawa T, Furukawa K, Furukawa K (1997) Expression cloning of rat cDNA encoding UDP-galactose: GD2 β1,3-galactosyltransferase that determines the expression of GD1b/GM1/Gal. J Biol Chem 272:24794–24799PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Schneider JS, Pope A, Simpson K, Taggart J, Smith MG, DiStefano L (1992) Recovery from experimental parkinsonism in primates with GM1 ganglioside treatment. Science 256:843–846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Shiina T, Kikkawa E, Iwasaki H, Kaneko M, Narimatsu H, Sasaki K, Bahram S, Inoko H (2000) The β-1,3-galactosyltransferase-4 (B3GALT4) gene is located in the centromeric segment of the human MHC class II region. Immunogenetics 51:75–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koichi Furukawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry IINagoya University School of MedicineShowa-kuJapan

Personalised recommendations