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Histoblood Group A Variants, O Variants, and Their Alleles

  • Sen-Itiroh Hakomori

Abstract

Histoblood group A phenotypes showing weaker agglutination, by anti-A antibodies or lectin (e.g., Dolichos biflorus), than regular A phenotypes (A1 are called collectively “weak A,” and include A2, A3, A x , A m , A el , etc. (Race and Sanger 1975). The A2 phenotype is common in Caucasians (average incidence 10%–15%), and particularly in Scandinavians (up to 25%), and very rare in Asian populations (to date, only studied in Japanese). It is sometimes difficult to distinguish the A2 from the O phenotype when A2 agglutination by anti-A antibodies is very weak. A3, A x , A m , and A el are very rare, even in Caucasians. “Weak B” phenotypes are also very rare. B x , which is comparable to A x , is extremely rare in Caucasians, and slightly more common (but still rare) in Japanese (Yamaguchi et al. 1970). The presence of O variants has become clear since the O gene was sequenced, and the genetic structures of the variants have been elucidated (Olsson et al. 1998).

Keywords

Blood Group Termination Codon Molecular Genetic Analysis Nucleotide Insertion Weak Agglutination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sen-Itiroh Hakomori
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Pacific Northwest Research InstituteSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Pathobiology and MicrobiologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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