Histoblood Group A Variants, O Variants, and Their Alleles

  • Sen-Itiroh Hakomori


Histoblood group A phenotypes showing weaker agglutination, by anti-A antibodies or lectin (e.g., Dolichos biflorus), than regular A phenotypes (A1 are called collectively “weak A,” and include A2, A3, A x , A m , A el , etc. (Race and Sanger 1975). The A2 phenotype is common in Caucasians (average incidence 10%–15%), and particularly in Scandinavians (up to 25%), and very rare in Asian populations (to date, only studied in Japanese). It is sometimes difficult to distinguish the A2 from the O phenotype when A2 agglutination by anti-A antibodies is very weak. A3, A x , A m , and A el are very rare, even in Caucasians. “Weak B” phenotypes are also very rare. B x , which is comparable to A x , is extremely rare in Caucasians, and slightly more common (but still rare) in Japanese (Yamaguchi et al. 1970). The presence of O variants has become clear since the O gene was sequenced, and the genetic structures of the variants have been elucidated (Olsson et al. 1998).


Blood Group Termination Codon Molecular Genetic Analysis Nucleotide Insertion Weak Agglutination 
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© Springer Japan 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sen-Itiroh Hakomori
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Pacific Northwest Research InstituteSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Pathobiology and MicrobiologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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