Histoblood Group A and B Transferases, Their Gene Structures, and Common O Group Gene Structures

  • Sen-Itiroh Hakomori


Histoblood group A and transferases are UDP-GalNAc: H-α3GalNAc transferase and UDP-Gal: H-a3Gal transferase, respectively (Fig. 1). Depending on the structure of H, four types of A antigen and three types of B antigen have been distinguished. Type-3 chain A, i.e., repetitive A, is present only as a glycosphingolipid in A1 but not in A2-erythrocytes (see Chapter 25). The corresponding “repetitive B” is absent or unknown. Type-4 chain A (globo-A) is also expressed in A1 but not in A2- erythrocytes. Type-4 chain B (globo-B) is not known in erythrocytes; however, both globo-A and globo-B are highly expressed in other organs, particularly kidney and urogenital epithelia. The distribution patterns of these isotypes of A and B antigens, and their patterns during development, have been reviewed (Hakomori 1981; Oriol et al. 1986; Clausen and Hakomori 1989; Oriol 1995). In this chapter, only allelic structures of A and B transferases, and the allele for the common O blood group gene, are described. Alleles for variants are described in Chapter 25.
Fig. 1

Enzymatic reactions for the synthesis of A and B antigens from various types of H. For the synthesis of A, four types of H structure with different R residues (R1,2,3,4) are involved. For the synthesis of B, only three types of H structure with different R residues (R1,2,4) are involved. The structures of R are shown in Table 1


Blood Group Nucleotide Number Gastric Cancer Cell Line MKN45 Reduce Promoter Activity HT29 Colonic Carcinoma Cell Line 
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© Springer Japan 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sen-Itiroh Hakomori
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Pacific Northwest Research InstituteSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Pathobiology and MicrobiologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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