Advertisement

Harvesting Techniques for Several Composite Tissues

  • Yoshihisa Shintomi
  • Yuhei Yamamoto
  • Kunihiko Nohira
  • Hiroshi Furukawa

Abstract

This chapter gives the current concept of skin flaps, with regard to their blood supply pattern and method of transfer.

Keywords

Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Island Flap Digital Artery Radial Forearm Flap Vascularized Bone Graft 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    McGregor I.A., Morgan G. (1973) Axial and random pattern flaps. Br I Plast Surg 26:202–213Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cormack G.C., Lamberty G.H. (1986) The arterial anatomy of skin flaps. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London Melbourne and New York, pp 440–441Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Taylor G.I., Palmer I.H. (1987) The vascular territories (angiosomes) of the body: Experimental study and clinical appliCations. Br J Plast Surg 40:113–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Taylor G.I., Caddy C.M., Watterson P.A., Crock I.G. (1990) The venous territories (venosomes) of the human body: Experimental study and clinical implications. Plast Reconstr Surg 86:185–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Taylor G.I., Gianoutsos M.P., Morris S.F. (1994) The neurovascular territories of the skin and muscles: Anatomic study and clinical implications. Plast Reconstr Surg 94:1–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Komatsu S., Tamai S. (1968) Successful replantation of a completely cut-off thumb. Plast Reconstr Surg 42:374–377Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Taylor G.I., Daniel R.K. (1973) The free flap: Composite tissue transfer by vascular anastomosis. Aust NZ J Surg 43:1–3Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    McCraw I.B., Dibbell D.G., Carraway I.H. (1977) Clinical definition of independent myocutaneous vascular territories. Plast Reconstr Surg 60:341–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nakajima H., Imanishi N., Fukuzumi S., Minabe T., Aiso S., Fujino T. (1998) Accompanying arteries of the cutaneous veins and cutaneous nerves in the extremities: Anatomical study and a concept of the venoadipofascial and/or neuroadipofascial pedicled fasciocutaneous flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 102:779-791Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koshima I., Inagawa K., Okumoto K., Moriguchi T. (1998) Perforator flaps: Recent advancement of microvascular surgery and establishment of a new flap concept. (Sentsushihiben-Bishokekkangeka no shinpo to aratana iben gainen no kakuritu). J Jpn PRS (Nikkeikaishi) 18:1–8Google Scholar
  11. 1.
    Dos Santos L.F. (1983) The vascular anatomy and dissection of the free scapular flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 73:599–603Google Scholar
  12. 2.
    Gilbert A., Teot L. (1982) The free scapular flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 69:601–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 3.
    Urbaniak J.R., Koman L.A., Goldner R.D., Armstrong N.B., Numlay J.A. (1982) The vascularized cutaneous scapular flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 69:772–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 4.
    Sekiguchi J., Kobayashi S., Ohmori K. (1993) Use of the osteocutaneous free scapular flap on the lower extremities. Plast Reconstr Surg 91:103–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 5.
    Fujisawa K., Kato K., Sekiguchi S., Hineno R., Hirata H. (1992) The vascularized scapular osteocutaneous flap for long bone reconstruction. (in Japanese) Cent Japan J Orthop Surg Traumatol 35:673–674Google Scholar
  16. 6.
    Hamilton S.G.L., Morrison W.A. (1982) The free scapular flap. Br J Plast Surg 35:2–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 1.
    Song R (1982) The one-stage reconstruction. The upper arm flap. Clin Plast Surg 9:27-39Google Scholar
  18. 2.
    Katsaros J., Schusterman M., Beppu M., Bamis C., Acland R.D. (1984) The lateral upper arm flap: anatomy and clinical applications. Ann Plast Surg 12:489–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 3.
    Katsaros J., Tan U. (1991) The use of the lateral arm flap in upper limb surgery. J Hand Surg 16A:598–604Google Scholar
  20. 4.
    Nakashima H., Hirano T., Yamamoto Y., Shimamura Y., Yonemitsu H. (1993) Experience with lateral upper arm flaps. Orthop Traumatol (Jpn) 42:1228–1230Google Scholar
  21. 1.
    Mühlbauer W., Hemdl E., Stock W. (1982) The forearm flap. Discussion by Ruyan Song. Plast Reconstr Surg 70:343–344Google Scholar
  22. 2.
    Reid C.D., Moss L.H. (1983) One-stage flap repair with vascularised tendon graft in a dorsal hand injury using the “Chinese” forearm flap. Br J Plast Surg 36:473–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 3.
    Brawn R., Rechnie M., Neill-Cage D.J., School R.T. (1995) The retrograde radial facial forearm flap: Surgical rationale, technique, and clinical application. J Hand Surg 20A:915–922Google Scholar
  24. 4.
    Weinzweig N., Chen L., Chen Z.W. (1994) The distally based radial forearm fasciosubcutaneous flap with preservation of the radial artery: Anatomics and clinical approach. Plast Reconstr Surg 94:675–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 5.
    Mühlbauer W., Hemdl E., Stock W. (1982) The forearm flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 70:336–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 6.
    Foucher G., Genechten V., Merle M., Michon J. (1984) Single stage thumb reconstruction by a composite forearm island flap. J Hand Surg 9B:245–248Google Scholar
  27. 7.
    Mahoney J., Naiberg J. (1987) Toe transfer to the vessels of the reversed forearm flap. J Hand Surg 12A:62–65Google Scholar
  28. 8.
    Chang T.S., Hwang W.Y. (1984) Forearm flap in one-stage reconstruction of the penis. Plast Reconstr Surg 74:251–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 9.
    Biemer E., Stoek W. (1983) Total thumb reconstruction: A one stage reconstruction using an osteoeutaneous forearm flap. Br J Plast Surg 36:52–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 10.
    Soutar D.S., Tanner N.S.B. (1984) The radial forearm flap in the management of soft tissue injuries of the hand. Br J Plast Surg 37:18–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 11.
    Sanger J.R., Ye Z., Yousif N.J., Matloub H.S. (1994) The brachio radialis fore arm flap: Anatomy and clinical application. Plast Reconstr Surg 94:667–674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 12.
    Inoue Y., Taylor I. (1996) The angiosomes of the forearm: Anatomic and clinical implications. Plast Reconstr Surg 98:195–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 13.
    Yajima H., Tamai S., Inada Y. (1996) Reverse flow radial forearm cutaneotendinous flap for soft tissue and tendon defect in the hand. J Jpn Soc Surg Hand 13:623–626Google Scholar
  34. 14.
    Torii S., Namiki Y., Mori R. (1987) Reverse-flow island flap: Clinical report and venous dranage. Plast Reconstr Surg 79:600–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 15.
    Nakajima H., Imanishi N., Fujino T. (1997) Venous drainage of the radial forearm and anterior tibial reverse flow flaps: Anatomical and radiographic perfusion studies. Br J Plast Surg 50:389–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 1.
    Zancolli E.A., Angrigiani C. (1986) Colgajo dorsal de antebrazo (en “isla” con pediculo de vasos interoseos posteriores). Rev Asoc Arg Ortop Traumatol 51:161–168Google Scholar
  37. 2.
    Zancolli E.A., Angrigiani C. (1988) Posterior interosseous island forearm flap. J Hand Surg 13B:130–135Google Scholar
  38. 3.
    Penteado C.V., Masquelet A.C., Chevrel J.P. (1986) The anatomic basis of the fasciocutaneous flap of the posterior interosseous artery. Surg Radiol Anat 8:209–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 4.
    Costa H., Soutar D.S. (1988) The distally based island posterior interosseous flap. Br J Plast Surg 41:221–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 5.
    Costa H., Smith R., McGrouther D.A. (1988) Thumb reconstruction by the posterior interosseous osteocutaneous flap. Br J Plast Surg 41:228–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 6.
    Buchler V., Frey H.P. (1991) Retrograde posterior interosseous flap. J Hand Surg 16A:283–292Google Scholar
  42. 7.
    Dadalt L.G., Vison H.J.R., Penteado C.V. (1994) Absence of the anastomosis between the anterior and posterior interosseous arteries in a posterior interosseous flap: a case report. J Hand Surg 19A:22–25Google Scholar
  43. 1.
    Rose E.H. (1983) Local arterialized island flap coverage of difficult hand defects preserving donor digit sensibility. Plast Reconstr Surg 72:848–857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 2.
    Gilbert A., Brunelli G. (1991) Homodigital island advancement flap. Finger tip and nailbed injuries. Churchill Livingstone, pp 65–73Google Scholar
  45. 3.
    Strauch B., de Morura W. (1990) Arterial system of the fingers. J Hand Surg 15A:148–154Google Scholar
  46. 4.
    Eaton R.G. (1968) The digital neurovascular bundle. Clin Orthop 61:176–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 5.
    Bucher U., Frey H.P. (1988) The dorsal middle phalangeal finger flap. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir 20:147–153Google Scholar
  48. 6.
    Hirase Y., Kojima T., Matumura S. (1992) A versatile one stage neurovascular flap for fingertip reconstruction: the dorsal middle phalangeal flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 90:1009–1015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 7.
    Weeks P.M., Wray R.C. (1978) Management of acute hand injuries, 2nd edn. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 183–186Google Scholar
  50. 8.
    Kojima T., Hayashi Y., Sakurai N., Kata N., Tsutsida Y. (1986) Eleven cases of vascular pedicle island flap coverage for difficult skin defects on the hand. J Jpn Soc Surg Hand 3:350–354Google Scholar
  51. 9.
    Inada Y., Tamai S., Fukui A., Yajima H., Tabuse H., Miyamoto S., Inada M. (1995) Clinical results in using versatile digital artery flaps: efficacy of a reverse digital flag flap. Jpn J Plast Reconstr Surg 38:941–949Google Scholar
  52. 10.
    Lai C.S., Lin S.D., Chou C.K., Tsai C.W. (1992) A versatile method for reconstruction of finger defects: reverse digital artery flap. Br J Plast Surg 45:443–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 11.
    Kinoshita Y., Kojima T., Hirase Y., Matumua S., Hayashi H. (1993) Experiences in treating postoperative complications of vascular pedicle digital island flaps. Jpn J Plast Reconstr Surg 36:161–168Google Scholar
  54. 12.
    Kojima T., Tsuchida Y., Hirase Y., Endo T. (1990) Reverse digital island flap. Br J Plast Surg 43:290–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 13.
    Sapp J.W., Allen R.J., Dupin C. (1993) A reversed digital artery island flap for the treatment of fingertip injuries. J Hand Surg 18A:528–534Google Scholar
  56. 14.
    Nakayama Y., Soeda S. (1986) The unconventional vascular island flaps-experimental investigation. Jpn J Plast Reconstr Surg 29:573–580Google Scholar
  57. 15.
    Lai C.S., Lin S.D., Chou C.K., Tsai C.W. (1993) Innervated reverse digital artery flap through bilateral neurorrhaphy for pulp defects. Br J Plast Surg 46:483–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 16.
    Han S..K, Lee B II, Kim W.K. (1998) The reverse digital artery island flap: clinical experience in 120 fingers. Plast Reconstr Surg 101:1006–1011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 17.
    Oberlin C., Sarcy J.J., Alnot J.Y. (1988) Apport arteriel cutane de la main application a la realisation des lambeaux en llot. Ann Chir Main 7:122–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 18.
    Bertelli J.A., Pagliei A. (1994) Direct and reversed flow proximal phalangeal island flap. J Hand Surg 19A:671–680Google Scholar
  61. 19.
    Inada Y., Fukui A., Murata K., Omokawa S. (1999) The reverse homo digital adipo-fascial island flap with preservation of the digital artery and nerve. J Jpn Plast Reconstr Surg 19:489–494Google Scholar
  62. 20.
    Coleman S.S., Anson B.J. (1961) Arterial patterns in the hand based upon a study of 650 specimens. Surg Gynecol Obst 113:409–424Google Scholar
  63. 21.
    Adachi B. (1928) Das Arteriensystem der Japaner. Band 1. Maruzen, KyotoGoogle Scholar
  64. 22.
    Kuhn H. (1961) Reconstruction du pouce par “lambeau de Hilgenfeldt”. Ann Chir Plast 6:259–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 23.
    Holevich J. (1963) A new method of restoring sensibility to the thumb. J Bone Joint Surg 45B:496–502Google Scholar
  66. 24.
    Foucher G., Braun J.B. (1979) A new island flap transfer from the dorsum of the ledex to the thumb. Plast Reconstr Surg 63:344–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 25.
    Earley M.J. (1989) The second dorsal metacarpal artery neurovascular island flap. J Hand Surg 14B:434–440Google Scholar
  68. 26.
    Earley M.J., Milner R.H. (1987) Dorsal metacarpal flaps. Br J Plast Surg 40:333–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 27.
    Quaba A.A., Davison P.M. (1990) The distally-based dorsalhand flap. Br J Plast Surg 43:28–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 28.
    Maruyama Y. (1990) The reverse dorsal metacarpal flap. Br J Plast Surg 43:24–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 29.
    Dautel G., Merle M. (1991) Dorsal metacarpal reverse flaps. J Hand Surg 16B:400–405Google Scholar
  72. 30.
    Sawaizumi M., Maruyama Y., Yoshitake M. (1995) The clinical use of dorsal metacarpal flaps for the repair ofskin defects of the hand. Jpn J Plast Reconstr Surg 38:911–919Google Scholar
  73. 1.
    Bayon P., Pho R.W. (1988) Anatomical basis of dorsal forearm flap. Based on posterior interosseous vessels. J Hand Surg 13B:435–439Google Scholar
  74. 2.
    Strauch B., de Moura W.J. (1990) Arterial system of the fingers. J Hand Surg 15A:148–154Google Scholar
  75. 3.
    Dautel G., Merle M. (1991) Dorsal metacarpal reverse flaps. Anatomical basis and clinical application. J Hand Surg 16B:400–405Google Scholar
  76. 4.
    Bertelli J.A., Khoury Z. (1992) Neurocutaneous island flaps in the hand: anatomical basis and preliminary results. Br J Plast Surg 45:586–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 5.
    Endo T., Kojima T., Hirase Y. (1992) Vascular anatomy of the finger dorsum and a new idea for coverage of the finger pulp defect that restores sensation. J Hand Surg 17A:927–932Google Scholar
  78. 6.
    Bertelli J.A., Pagliei A. (1994) A direct and reversed flow proximal phalangeal island flap. J Hand Surg 19A:671–680Google Scholar
  79. 7.
    Sherif M.M. (1994) First dorsal metacarpal artery flap in hand reconstruction. I. Anatomical study. J Hand Surg 19A:26–31Google Scholar
  80. 8.
    Omokawa S., Ryu J., Tang J.B., Han J.S. (1996) Anatomical basis for a fasciocutaneous flap from the hypothenar eminence of the hand. Br J Plast Surg 49:559–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 9.
    Omokawa S., Ryu J., Tang J.B., Han J. (1997) Vascular and neural anatomy of the thenar area of the hand: its surgical applications. Plast Reconstr Surg 99:116–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 10.
    Karacalar A., Ozcan M. (1998) U-I flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 102:741–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 11.
    Krag C., Rasmussen B. (1975) The neurovascular island flap for defective sensibility of the thumb. J Bone Joint Surg 57B:495–499Google Scholar
  84. 12.
    Foucher G., Braun J.B. (1979) A new island flap transfer from the dorsum of the index to the thumb. Plast Reconstr Surg 72:344–349Google Scholar
  85. 13.
    Venkataswami R., Subramanian N. (1980) Oblique triangular flap: a new method of repair for oblique amputations of the fingertip and thumb. Plast Reconstr Surg 66:296–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 14.
    Cohen B.E., Cronin E.D. (1983) An innervated cross-finger flap for fingertip reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 72:688–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 15.
    Dellon A.L. (1983) The proximal inset thenar flap for fingertip reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 72:698–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 16.
    Hirase Y., Kojima T., Matsuura S. (1992) A versatile onestage neurovascular flap for fingertip reconstruction: the dorsal middle phalangeal finger flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 90:1009–1015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 17.
    Karacalar A., Ozcan M. (1994) Free arterialized venous flap for the reconstruction of defects of the hand: new modifications. J Reconstr Microsurg 10:243–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 18.
    Germann G., Hornung R., Raff T. (1995) Two new applications for the first dorsal metacarpal artery pedicle in the treatment of severe hand injuries. J Hand Surg 20B:525–528Google Scholar
  91. 19.
    May J.W. Jr, Chait L.A., Cohen B.E., O’Brien B.M. (1977) Free neurovascular flap from the first web of the foot in hand reconstruction. J Hand Surg 2:387–393Google Scholar
  92. 20.
    Morrison A.W., O’Brien M.B., Macheord M.A. (1980) Thumb reconstruction with a free neurovascular wrap around flap from the big toe. J Hand Surg 5A:575–583Google Scholar
  93. 21.
    Tsai T.M., Aziz W. (1991) Toe-to-thumb transfer: a new technique. Plast Reconstr Surg 88:149–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 22.
    Lee W.P.A., May J.W. Jr (1992) Neurosensory free flaps to the hand. Hand Clinic 8:465–477Google Scholar
  95. 23.
    Osaka S., Hoshi M., Sano S., Nozaki M., Yamamoto M. (1996) Description of new composite tissue transfer for salvage of a complex hand defect. Clin Orthop 328:91–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 24.
    Ninkovic M., Wechselberger G., Schwabegger A., Anderl H. (1996) The instep free flap to resurface palmar defects of the hand. Plast Reconstr Surg 9:1489–1493Google Scholar
  97. 25.
    Foucher G., Chabaud M. (1998) The bipolar lengthening technique: a modified partial toe transfer for thumb reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 102:1981–1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 26.
    Gellis M., Pool R. (1977) Two-point discrimination distance in the normal hand and forearm. Plast Reconstr Surg 59:57–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 27.
    Patton H.S. (1969) Split skin graft from hypothenar area for fingertip avulsions. Plast Reconstr Surg 43:426–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 28.
    Mack G.R., Neviaser R.J., Wilson I.N. (1981) Free palmar skin grafts for resurfacing digital defects. J Hand Surg 6A:565–567Google Scholar
  101. 29.
    Shenck P.R., Cheema T.A. (1984) Hypothenar skin grafts for fingertip reconstruction. J Hand Surg 9:750–753Google Scholar
  102. 30.
    Chase R.A., Hentz V.R., Apfelberg D. (1980) A dynamic myocutaneous flap for hand reconstruction. J Hand Surg 5:594–599Google Scholar
  103. 31.
    Kojima T., Imai T., Endo T. (1988) A study on cutaneous vascularity of the hypothenar region and clinical application as the hypothenar island flap. J Jpn Soc Surg Hand 5:645–649Google Scholar
  104. 32.
    Zancolli E.A. (1990) Olgajo cutaneo en isla del hueco de la palma. Prensa Media Argentina 77:14–20Google Scholar
  105. 33.
    Rohrich R.J., Ehrlichman R.J., May J.M. Jr (1991) Sensate palm of the hand free flap for forearm length preservation in nonreplantable forearm amputation: long-term followup. Ann Plast Surg 26:469–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 34.
    Gu Y.D., Zhang L.Y., Zhang G.M. (1992) Hypothenar flap. Chinese J Hand Surg 8:865–868Google Scholar
  107. 35.
    Vasconez L.O., Velasquez C.A., Rumley T. (1992) Correction of a first web space contracture with an arterialzed palmar Iiap. In: Gilbert A. (ed) Pedicle flaps of the upper limb. Martin Dunitz, London, pp 135–138Google Scholar
  108. 36.
    Veda K., Inoue T. (1994) The new palmaris brevis musculocutaneous flap. Ann Plast Surg 32:529–534Google Scholar
  109. 37.
    Moiemen M.S., Elliot D. (1994) A modification of the Zancolli reverse digital artery flap. J Hand Surg 19B:142–146Google Scholar
  110. 38.
    Omokawa S., Mizumoto S., Iwai M., Tamai S., Fukui A. (1996) Innervated radial thenar flap for sensory reconstruction of fingers. J Hand Surg 21A:373–380Google Scholar
  111. 39.
    Iwasawa M., Ohtsuka Y., Kushima H., Kiyono M. (1997) Arterialized venous flaps from the thenar and hypothenar regions for repairing finger pulp tissue losses. Plast Reconstr Surg 99:1965–1970Google Scholar
  112. 1.
    McGregor I.A., Jackson I.T. (1972) The groin flap. Br J Plast Surg 25:3–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 2.
    Daniel R.K., Taylor G.I. (1973) Distant transfer of an island flap by microvascular anastomoses: A clinical technique. Plast Reconstr Surg 52:111–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 3.
    Harii K., Ohmori K., Torii S., Murakami F. Kasai Y. Sekiguchi J., Ohmori S. (1975) Free groin flaps. Br J Plast Surg 28:225–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 4.
    Ohmori K., Harii K. (1975) Free groin flaps: Their vascular basis. Br J Plast Surg 28:238–246Google Scholar
  116. 5.
    Harii K. (1983) Groin flap. In: Microvascular tissue transfer, fundamental techniques and clinical applications. Igaku-Shoin, Tokyo, pp 48–57Google Scholar
  117. 6.
    Taylor G.I., Daniel R.K. (1975) The anatomy of several free flap donor sites. Plast Reconstr Surg 56:243–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 7.
    Hidalgo D.A., Shaw W.W. (1987) Free groin flaps. In: Shaw W.W., Hidalgo D.A. (eds) Microsurgery in trauma. Futura Publishing Company, New York, pp 303–311Google Scholar
  119. 8.
    Shioya N., Ohtsuka H. (1986) Principles of plastic and reconstructive surgery. Igaku-Shoin, Tokyo, p 61Google Scholar
  120. 9.
    O’Brien B.M., MacLeod A.M., Hayhurst J.W., Morrison W.A. (1973) Successful transfer of a large island flap from the groin to the foot by microvascular anastomoses. Plast Reconstr Surg 52:271–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 10.
    Ohtsuka H., Kamiishi H., Saito H., Ito M., Shioya N. (1976) Successful free flap transfers with diseased recipient vessels. Br J Plast Surg 29:5–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 11.
    Murakami R., Tanaka K., Kobayashi K., Fujii T., Sakito T., Furukawa M., Kobayashi T., Shigeno K. (1998) Free groin flap for reconstruction of the tongue and oral floor. J Reconstr Microsurg 14:49–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 12.
    Shintomi Y., Ohura T., Honda K., Iida K. (1981) The reconstruction of progressive facial hemiatrophy by free vascularized dermis-fat flaps. Br J Plast Surg 34:398–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 1.
    Taylor G.I., Miller G.D.H., Ham F.J. (1975) The free vascularized bone graft. Plast Reconstr Surg 55:533–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 2.
    Chen Z.W., Bao Y.S. (1980) Microsurgery in China. Clin Plast Surg 7:437–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 3.
    Yoshimura M., Shimamura K., Iwai Y., Yamauchi S., Veno T. (1983) Free vascularized fibular transplant: A new method for monitoring circulation of the grafted fibula. J Bone Joint Surg 65-A:1295–1301Google Scholar
  127. 4.
    Okubo K., Murota K., Tomita Y., Hirane T., Nakura N., Takahashi F., Kato S. (1983) Free vascularized fibular graft associated with flap. Orthop Traumat Surg 26:577–585Google Scholar
  128. 5.
    Yoshimura M., Imura S., Shimamura K., Yamauchi S., Nomura S. (1984) Peroneal flap for reconstruction in the extremity: Preliminary report. Plast Reconstr Surg 74:402–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 6.
    Yoshimura M., Shimada T., Imura S., Shimamura K., Yamauchi S. (1985) Peroneal island flap for skin defects in the lower extremity. J Bone Joint Surg 67-A:935–941Google Scholar
  130. 7.
    Yoshimura M., Shimada T., Matsuda M., Hosokawa M., Imura S. (1989) Double peroneal free flap for multiple skin defects of the hand. Br J Plast Surg 42:715–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 8.
    Yoshimura M., Shimada T., Hosokawa M. (1990) The vasculature of peroneal tissue transfer. Plast Reconstr Surg 85:917–921PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 9.
    Masquelet A.C., Gilbert A. (1995) An atlas of flaps in limb reconstruction. Martin Dunitz, London, pp 167–168Google Scholar
  133. 10.
    Strauch B., Yu H.L., Chen Z.W., Liebling R. (1993) Atlas of microvascular surgery, anatomy, and operative approaches. Thieme Medical, New York, pp 228–232Google Scholar
  134. 1.
    O’Brien B.M., Shanmugan N. (1973) Experimental transfer of composite free flaps with microvascular anastomoses. Aust NZ J Surg 43:285–288Google Scholar
  135. 2.
    McCraw J.B., Furlow L.T. (1975) The dorsalis pedis arterialized flap: a clinical study. Plast Reconstr Surg 55:177–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 3.
    Daniel R.K., Terzis J., Midgley R.D. (1976) Restoration of sensation of an anesthetic hand by a free neurovascular flap from the foot. Plast Reconstr Surg 57:275–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 4.
    Robinson D.W. (1976) Microsurgical transfer of the dorsalis pedis neurovascular island flap. Br J Plast Surg 29:209–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 5.
    Ohmori K., Harii K. (1976) Free dorsalis pedis sensory flap to the hand, with microneurovascular anastomosis. Plast Reconstr Surg 58:546–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 6.
    Robinson D.W. (1979) Dorsalis pedis flap. In: Serafin D., Buncke H. Jr (eds) Microsurgical composite tissue transplantation. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 257–284Google Scholar
  140. 7.
    Taylor G.I., Townsend P. (1979) Composite free flap tendon transfer: an anatomical study and a clinical technique. Br J Plast Surg 32:170–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 8.
    Tamai S., Fukui A., Shimizu T., Yamaguchi T. (1983) Thumb reconstruction with an iliac bone graft and a dorsalis pedis flap transplant including the extensor digitorum brevis muscle for restoring opposition: A case report, Microsurgery 4:81–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 9.
    Ohkubo K., Murota K., Tomita Y., Moriyama M., Takahashi F., Murai T. (1984) Free dorsalis pedis flap with toe extensor tendon-vascularized tendon graft. Seikei Saigai Geka 27:983–990 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  143. 10.
    Tsuji K. (1983) A case report of free dorsalis pedis flap with long toe extensor tendon for finger extension. Seikeigeka 34:1783–1785 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  144. 1.
    Mir y Mir L. (1954) Functional graft of the heel. Plast Reconstr Surg 14:444–450Google Scholar
  145. 2.
    Shanaham R.E., Gingrass R.P. (1979) Medial plantar sensory flap for coverage of heel defects. Plast Reconstr Surg 64:295–298Google Scholar
  146. 3.
    Reiffel R.S., McCarthy J.G. (1980) Coverage of heel and sole defects; a new subfascia arterialized flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 66:250–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 4.
    Harrison D.H., Morgan B. (1981) The instep island flap to resurface plantar defects. Br J Plast Reconstr Surg 34:315–318Google Scholar
  148. 5.
    Morrison W.A., Grabb D.M., O’ Brien B.M., Jenkins A. (1983) The instep of the foot as a fasciocutaneous island flap and as a free flap for heel defects. Plast Reconstr Surg 72:56–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 6.
    Hidalgo D.A., Shaw W.W. (1986) Anatomic basis of plantar flap design. Plast Reconstr Surg 78:627–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 7.
    Shaw W.W., Hidalgo D.A. (1986) Anatomic basis of plantar flap design: clinical applications. Plast Reconstr Surg 78:637–649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 1.
    Morrison W.A., O’Brien B.M., MacLeod A.M., Gilbert A. (1978) Neurovascular free flaps from the foot for innervation of the hand. J Hand Surg 3:235–242Google Scholar
  152. 2.
    May J.W. Jr, Chait L.A., Cohen B.E., O’Brien B.B.C. (1977) Free neurovascular flap from the first web of the foot in hand reconstruction. J Hand Surg 2:387–393Google Scholar
  153. 3.
    Strauch B., Tsur H. (1978) Restoration of sensation to the hand by a free neurovascular flap from the first web space of the foot. Plast Reconstr Surg 62:361–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 4.
    Gilbert A. (1976) Composite tissue transfers from the foot: anatomic basis and surgical technique. In: Daniller A.I., Strauch B. (eds) Symposium on microsurgery. CV Mosby, St Louis, pp 230–242Google Scholar
  155. 1.
    Mathes S.J., Bostwick J. (1977) A rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap to reconstruct abdominal wall defects. Brit J Plast Surg 30:282–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 2.
    Koshima I., Soeda S. (1989) Inferior epigastric skin flaps without rectus abdominis muscle. Br J Plast Surg 42:645–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 3.
    Kroll S.K., Rosenfield L.R. (1988) Perforator-based flaps for low posterior midline defects. Plast Reconstr Surg 81:561–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 4.
    Onishi K., Maruyama Y. (1986) Cutaneous and fascial vasculature around the rectus abdominis muscle: anatomic basis of abdominal fasciocutaneous flaps. J Reconstr Microsurg 2:247–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 5.
    Taylor G.I., Corlett R.J., Boyd J.B. (1980) The versatile deep inferior epigastric (inferior rectus abdominis) flap. Br J Plast Surg 37:330–350Google Scholar
  160. 6.
    Thomas C.V. (1980) Thin flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg 65:747–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 7.
    Duchateau J., Declety A., Lejour M. (1988) Innervation of the rectus abdominis muscle: implications for rectus flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg 82:223–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 8.
    Koshima I., Inagawa K., Urushibara K., Moriguchi T. (1998) Paraumbilical perforator flap without deep inferior epigastric vessels. Plast Reconstr Surg 102:1052–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 1.
    Nakayama Y., Soeda S., Kasai Y. (1981) Flaps nourished by arterial inflow through the venous system: an experimental investigation. Plast Reconstr Surg 67:328–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 2.
    Ji S.Y., Chia S.L., Cheng H.H. (1984) Free transplantation of venous network pattern skin flaps: an experimental study in rabbits. Microsurgery 5:151–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 3.
    Nichter L.S., Haines P.C. (1985) Arterialized venous perfusion of composite tissue. Am J Surg 150:191–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 4.
    Baek S.M., Weinberg H., Song Y., Park C.G., Biller H.F. (1985) Experimental studies in the survival of venous island flaps without arterial inflow. Plast Reconstr Surg 75:88–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 5.
    Thatte R.L., Thatte M.R. (1987) A study of the saphenous venous island flap in the dog without arterial inflow using a non-biological conduit across a part of the length of the vein. Br J Plast Surg 40:11–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 6.
    Fukui A., Inada Y., Tamai S., Mizumoto S., Yajima H., Sempuku T. (1988) Skin graft including subcutaneous vein:experimental study and clinical applications. J Reconstr Microsurg 4:223–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 7.
    Fukui A., Tamai S. (1988) Musculocutaneous grafts with draining vein: an experimental study. J Reconstr Surg 2:113–122Google Scholar
  170. 8.
    Amarante J., Costa H., Reis J., Soares R. (1988) Venous skin flaps: an experimental study and report of two clinical distal island flaps. Br J Plast Surg 41:132–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 9.
    Sasa M., Xian W., Breidenbach W., Tsai T.M., Sibata M., Firrell J. (1988) Survival and blood flow evaluation of canine venous flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg 82:319–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 10.
    Fukui A., Tamai S., Williams H.B. (1989) The importance of venous drainage in rat flaps: an experimental study. J Reconstr Microsurg 5:19–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 11.
    Inada Y., Fukui A., Tamai S., Masuhara K. (1989) Experimental studies of skin flaps with subcutaneous veins. J Reconstr Microsurg 5:249–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 12.
    Thatte M.R., Kamdar N.B., Khakkar D.V., Varade M.A., Thatte R.L. (1989) Static and dynamic computerised radioactive tracer studies, vital dye staining and theoretical mathematical calculations to ascertain the mode of survival of single cephalad channel venous island flaps. Br J Plast Surg 42:405–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 13.
    Inada Y., Fukui A., Tamai S., Maeda M., Mizumoto S. (1990) An experimental study of the venous flap: investigation of the recipient vein. J Reconstr Microsurg 6:123–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 14.
    Yuen O.M., Leung P.C. (1991) Some factors affecting the survival of venous flaps: an experimental study. Microsurgery 12:60–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 15.
    Noreldin A.A., Fukuta K., Jackson T. (1992) Role of perivenous areolar tissue in the viability of venous flaps: an experimental study on the inferior epigastric venous flap of the rat. Br J Plast Surg 45:18–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 16.
    Fukui A., Maeda M., Tamai S., Inada Y. (1993) “Plasmatic imbibition” in the rat musculocutaneous pedicled venous flap: enzymatic proof using horseradish peroxidase. Microsurgery 14:114–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 17.
    Fukui A., Tamai S., Maeda M., Mii Y., Mine T. (1993) The pedicled venous flap. An experimental study. Br J Plast Surg 46:116–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 18.
    Lenoble E., Foucher G., Voisin M.C., Maurael A., Goutallier D. (1993) Observation on experimental flow-through venous flaps. Br J Plast Surg 46:378–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 19.
    Chow S.P., Chen D.Z., Gu Y.D. (1993) The significance of venous drainage in free flap transfer. Plast Reconstr Surg 91:713–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 20.
    Ueda K., Harada T., Nagasaka S., Inoue T., Harashina T. (1993) An experimental study of delay of flow-through venous flaps. Br J Plast Surg 46:56–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 21.
    Smith R.J., Fukuta K., Wheatley M., Jackson I.T. (1994) Role of perivenous areolar tissue and recipient bed in the viability of venous flaps in the rabbit ear model. Br J Plast Surg 47:10–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 22.
    Fukui A., Inada Y., Murata K., Tamai S. (1995) “Plasmatic imbibition” in the rabbit flow-through venous flap, using horseradish peroxidase and fluorescein. J Reconstr Microsurg 11:255–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 23.
    Fukui A., Inada Y., Murata K., Ueda Y., Tamai S. (1998) A method for prevention of arterialized venous flap necrosis. J Reconstr Microsurg 14:67–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 24.
    Yuan R., Shan Y., Zhu S. (1998) Circulating mechanism of the “pure” venous flap: direct observation of microcirculation. J Reconstr Microsurg 14:147–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 25.
    Murata K., Inada Y., Fukui A., Tamai S. (1999) Transfer of pedicled venous flap containing perivenous areolar tissue and nerve: an experimental study. Br J Plast Surg 52:223–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 26.
    Honda T., Nomura S., Yamauchi S., Shimamura K., Yoshimura M. (1984) The possible applications of a composite skin and subcutaneous vein graft in the replantation of amputated digits. Br J Plast Surg 37:607–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 27.
    Thatte R.E., Thatte R.M. (1987) Cephalic venous flap. Br J Plast Surg 40:16–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 28.
    Chavoin J.P., Rouge D., Vachaud M., Boccalon H., Costagliola M. (1987) Island flaps with an exclusively venous pedicle. A report of eleven cases and a preliminary haemodynamic study. Br J Plast Surg 40:149–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 29.
    Tsai T.M., Matiko J.D., Breidenbach W., Kutz J.E. (1987) Venous flaps in digital revisualization and replantation. J Reconstr Microsurg 3:113–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 30.
    Tang Y., Chen H., Simchon S., Jan K., Chien S. (1988) The relationship between blood flow and survival of venous flaps. Transaction of 9th Symposium of the International Society of Reconstructive Microsurgery, Lake Kawaguchi, Yamanashi, Japan, p 120Google Scholar
  193. 31.
    Foucher G., Norris R.W. (1988) The venous dorsal digital island flap or the “neutral” flap. Br J Plast Surg 41:337–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 32.
    Fukui A., Inada Y., Maeda M., Tamai S., Mizumoto S., Yajima H., Sempuku T. (1989) Pedicled and “flow-through” venous flaps: clinical applications. J Reconstr Microsurg 5:235–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 33.
    Thatte R.M., Kumta S.M., Purohit S.K., Deshpande S.N., Thatte R.L. (1989) Cephalic venous flap: a series of 8 cases and a preliminary report on the use of 99mTc-labeled RBCs to study the saphenous venous flap in dogs. Br J Plast Surg 42:193–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 34.
    Thatte R.L., Thatte M.R. (1989) The saphenous venous flap. Br J Plast Surg 42:399–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 35.
    Inada Y., Fukui A., Tamai S., Kakihana T., Maeda M. (1991) The sliding venous flap for covering skin defects with poor blood supply on the lateral aspects of fingers. Br J Plast Surg 44:368–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 36.
    Fukui A., Maeda M., Tamai S., Inada Y. (1993) The pedicled venous flap. Clinical applications. Br J Plast Surg 46:68–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 37.
    Yoshimura M., Shimada T., Imamura S., Shimamura K., Yamauchi S. (1987) The venous skin graft method for repairing skin defects of the fingers. Plast Reconstr Surg 79:243–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 38.
    Inoue G., Maeda N. (1988) Arterialized venous flap coverage for skin defects of the hand or foot. J Reconstr Microsurg 4:259–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 39.
    Nishi G., Shibata Y., Kumabe Y., Hattori S., Okuda T. (1989) Arterialized venous skin flaps for the injured finger. J Reconstr Microsurg 5:357–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 40.
    Inoue G., Naeda N., Suzuki K. (1990) Resurfacing of skin defects of the hand using the arterialised venous flap. Br J Plast Surg 43:135–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 41.
    Koshima I., Soeda S., Nakayama Y., Fukuda H., Tanaka J. (1991) An arterialized venous flap using the long saphenous vein. Br J Plast Surg 44:23–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 42.
    Inada Y., Fukui A., Tamai S., Mizumoto S. (1993) The arterialised venous flap: experimental studies and a clinical case. Br J Plast Surg 46:61–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 43.
    Kamei K., Ide Y. (1993) The pedicled arterialized venous flap. J Reconstr Microsurg 9:287–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 44.
    Nishi G. (1994) Venous flaps for covering skin defect of the hand. J Reconstr Microsurg 10:313–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 45.
    Karacalar A., Ozcan M. (1994) Free arterialized venous flap for the reconstruction of defects of the hand: new modifications. J Reconstr Microsurg 10:243–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 46.
    Inoue G., Tamura Y., Suzuki K. (1996) One-stage repair of skin and tendon digital defects using the arterialized venous flap with palmaris longus tendon: an additional four cases. J Reconstr Microsurg 12:93-97Google Scholar
  209. 47.
    Ueda Y., Mizumoto S., Hirai T., Doi Y., Fukui A., Tamai S. (1997) Two-stage arterialized flow-through venous flap transfer for third degree burn defects on the dorsum of the hand. J Reconstr Microsurg 13:489–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 48.
    Fukui A., Inada Y., Maeda M., Mizumoto S., Yajima H., Tamai S. (1994) Venous flap-its classification and clinical applications. Microsurgery 15:571–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 1.
    Ikuta Y. (1977) Microsurgery. Nankodo, Tokyo, pp 213–232Google Scholar
  212. 2.
    Zhong-Wei C., Dong-Yue Y., Di-Sheng C. (1982) In: Zhongwei C., Dong-yue Y., Di-sheng C. (eds) Microsurgery. Springer, Berlin, pp 232–260.Google Scholar
  213. 3.
    Tamai S., Komatsu S., Sakamoto H., Sano S., Sasauchi N., Hori Y., Tatsumi Y., Okada H. (1970) Free muscle transplants in dogs, with microsurgical neurovascular anastomoses. Plast Reconstr Surg 46:219-225Google Scholar
  214. 4.
    Kubo T., Ikuta Y., Tsuge K. (1976) Free muscle transplantation in dogs by microneurovascular anastomoses. Plast Reconstr Surg 57:495–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 5.
    Harii K., Ohmori K., Torii S. (1976) Free gracilis muscle transplantation, with microneurovascular anastomoses for the treatment of facial paralysis. Plast Reconstr Surg 57:133–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 6.
    Ikuta Y., Kubo T., Tsuge K (1976) Free muscle transplantationby microsurgical technique to treat severe Volkmann’s contracture. Plast Reconstr Surg 58:407–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 7.
    Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai (1976) Free muscle transplantation by microsurgical neurovascular anastomoses. Report of a case. Chinese Med J 2:47–50Google Scholar
  218. 8.
    Schenck R.R. (1977) Free muscle and composite skin transplantation by microneurovascular anastomosis. Orthop Clin North Am 8:367–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 9.
    Manktelow R.T., McKee N.H. (1978) Free muscle transplantation to provide active finger flexion. J Hand Surg 3:416–426Google Scholar
  220. 10.
    Manktelow R.T., Zuker R.M., McKee N.H. (1984) Functioning free muscle transplantation. J Hand Surg 9A:32–39Google Scholar
  221. 11.
    Harii K., Ohmori K., Sekiguchi J. (1976) The free musculocutaneous flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 57:294–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 1.
    Bostwick J. III, Vasconez L.O., Jurkiewicz M.J. (1978) Breast reconstruction after a radical mastectomy. Plast Reconstr Surg 61:682–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 2.
    Quillen C.G. (1979) Latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flapson head and neck reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 63:664–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 3.
    Bostwick J. III, Nahai F., Wallance J.G., Vasconez L.O. (1979) Sixty latissimus dorsi flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg 63:31–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 4.
    Mendelson B.C., Masson J.K. (1977) Treatment of chronic radiation injury over the shoulder with a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 60:681–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 5.
    Watson J.S., Craig R.D.P., Orton C.I. (1979) The free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 64:299–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 6.
    Maxwell G.P. (1979) Iginio Tansini and the origin of the latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 66:686–692Google Scholar
  228. 7.
    Schottstaedt E.R., Larsen L.J., Bost F.C. (1955) Complete muscle transposition. J Bone Joint Surg 37A:897–918Google Scholar
  229. 8.
    Zancolli E., Mitye R. (1973) Latissimus dorsi transfer to restore elbow flexion. J Bone Joint Surg 55A:1265–1275Google Scholar
  230. 9.
    Olivari N. (1976) The latissimus flap. Br J Plast Surg 29:126–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 10.
    Muhlbauer W., Olbrish R. (1977) The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap for breast reconstruction. Chir Plast 4:27–34Google Scholar
  232. 11.
    Bartlett S.P., May J.W. Jr, Yaremchuk M.L. (1981) The latissimus dorsi muscle: a fresh cadaver study of the primary neurovascular pedicle. Plast Reconstr Surg 67:631–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 12.
    Tobin G.R., Schusterman M., Peterson G.R., Nichols G., Bland L.I. (1981) The intramuscular neurovascular anatomy of the latissimus dorsi muscle: the basis for splitting the flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 67:637–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 13.
    McCraw J.B., Penix J.O., Baker J.W. (1978) Repair of major defects of the chest wall and spine with the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 62:197–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 1.
    Drever J.M. (1977) The epigastric island flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 59:343–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 2.
    Mathes S.J., Bostwick J. III (1977) A rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap to reconstruct abdominal wall defects. Br J Plast Surg 30:282–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 3.
    Robbins T.H. (1979) Rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap for breast reconstruction. Aust NZ J Surg 49:527–531Google Scholar
  238. 4.
    Hartrampf C.R., Scheflan M., Black P.W. (1982) Breast reconstruction with a transverse abdominal island flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 69:21–224Google Scholar
  239. 5.
    Taylor G.I., Corlett R., Boyd J.B. (1983) The extended deep inferior epigastric flap: A clinical technique. Plast Reconstr Surg 72:751–764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 6.
    Harashina T., Sone K., Inoue T., Fukuzumi S., Enomoto K. (1987) Augmentation of circulation of pedicled transverserectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps by microvascular surgery. Br J Plast Surg 40:367–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 7.
    Yamamoto Y., Nohira K., Sugihara T., Shintomi Y., Ohura T. (1996) Superiority of the microvascularly augmented flap:Analysis of 50 transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps for breast reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 97:79–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 8.
    Holmstrom H. (1979) The free abdominoplasty flap and its use in breast reconstruction. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg 13:423–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 9.
    Pennington D.G., Lai M.F., Pelly A.D. (1980) The rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flap. Br J Plast Surg 33:277–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 10.
    Nakatsuka T., Harii K., Asato H., Ebihara S. (1994) Versatility of a free inferior rectus abdominis flap for head and neck reconstruction: Analysis of 200 cases. Plast Reconstr Surg 93:762–769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 11.
    Yamamoto Y., Nohira K., Minakawa H., Sasaki S., Yoshida T., Sugihara T., Shintomi Y., Yamashita T., Hosokawa M., Ohura T. (1995) “Boomerang” rectus abdominis musculocutaneous free flap in head and neck reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg 34:48–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 12.
    Yamamoto Y., Minakawa H., Kokubu I., Kawashima K., Sugihara T., Satoh N., Fukuda S. (1997) The rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap combined with vascularized costal cartilages in reconstructive craniofacial surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg 100:439–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 13.
    Koshima I., Soeda S. (1989) Inferior epigastric artery skin flap without rectus abdominis muscle. Br J Plast Surg 42:645-648Google Scholar
  248. 1.
    Jobe M.T. (1998) Muscle and musculocutaneous free flaps. In: Canale S.T. (ed) Campbell’s operative orthopaedics. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 3219–3221Google Scholar
  249. 2.
    Wood M.B. (1990) Atlas of reconstructive microsurgery. Aspen, Rockville, (Maryland), pp 55–58Google Scholar
  250. 3.
    Zhong-Wei C., Dong-Yue Y., Di-Sheng C. (1982) Microsurgery. Springer, Berlin, pp 232–260Google Scholar
  251. 4.
    Harii K., Ohmori K., Torii S. (1976) Free gracilis muscle transplantation, with microneurovascular anastomoses for the treatment of facial paralysis. Plast Reconstr Surg 57:133–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 5.
    Harii K., Ohmori K., Sekiguchi J. (1976) The free musculocutaneous flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 57:294–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 6.
    Manktelow R.T., Zuker R.M., McKee N.H. (1984) Functioning free muscle transplantation. J Hand Surg 9A:32–39Google Scholar
  254. 1.
    Taylor G.I., Townsend P. (1979) Composite free flap and tendon transfer. An anatomical study and clinical technique. Br J Plast Surg 32:170–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 2.
    Yajima H., Tamai S. (1988) Reverse flow radial forearm flap with vascularized tendons for hand reconstruction. 7th Congress International Federation Society of the Surgery of the Hand, Monduzzi Editore, Bologna, pp 797–801Google Scholar
  256. 3.
    Yajima H., Inada Y., Shono M., Tamai S. (1996) Radial forearm flap with vascularized tendons for hand reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 98:328–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 4.
    Singer D.I., Morrison W.A., Gumley G.J., O’Brien B.M., Mitchell G.M., Barton R.M., Frykman G.K. (1989) Comparative study of vascularized and nonvascularized tendon grafts for reconstruction of flexor tendons in zone 2: an experimental study in primates. J Hand Surg 14A:55–63Google Scholar
  258. 5.
    Moriyama M. (1992) Vascularized tendon grafting in the rabbit. J Reconstr Microsurg 8:83–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 6.
    Morrison W.A. (1987) Reconstructive microsurgery. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 340–346Google Scholar
  260. 7.
    Reid C.D., Moss A.L.H. (1983) One-stage flap repair with vascularized tendon grafts in a dorsal hand injury using the “Chinese” forearm flap. Br J Plast Surg 36:473–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 8.
    Glasson D.W., Lovie M.J. (1988) The ulnar island flap in hand and forearm reconstruction. Br J Plast Surg 41:349–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 9.
    Hou S.M., Liu T.K. (1993) Vascularized tendon graft using lateral arm flap. Acta Orthop Scand 64:373–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 10.
    Inoue G., Tamura Y. (1991) One-stage repair of both skin and tendon digital defects using the arterialized venous flap with palmaris longus tendon. J Reconstr Microsurg 7:339–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 11.
    Wei F.C., Chen H.C., Chuang C.C., Noordhoff M.S. (1988) Reconstruction of Achilles tendon and calcaneus defects with skin-aponeurosis bone composite free tissue from the groin region. Plast Reconstr Surg 81:579–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 12.
    Inoue T., Tanaka I., Imai K., Hatoko M. (1990) Reconstruction of Achilles tendon using vascularized fascia lata with free lateral thigh flap. Br J Plast Surg 43:728–731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 13.
    Waris T.H., Kaarela O.I., Raatikainen T.K., Teerikangas H.E., Heikkinen E.S. (1991) Microvascular flaps from the lateral arm and radial forearm for the repair of defects of the Achilles tendon region. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg 25:87–89Google Scholar
  267. 14.
    Cavanagh S., Pho R.W.H., Kour A.K. (1991) A composite neuro-teno-cutaneous forearm flap in the one-stage reconstruction of a large defect of the soft tissue around the ankle. J Reconstr Microsurg 7:323–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 15.
    Vila-Rovira R., Ferreira B.J., Guinot A. (1985) Transfer of vascularized extensor tendons from the foot to the hand with a dorsalis pedis flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 76:421–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 16.
    Caroli A., Adani R., Castagnetti C., Pancaldi G., Squarzina P.B. (1993) Dorsalis pedis flap with vascularized extensor tendons for dorsal hand reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 92:1326–1330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 17.
    Song R., Gao Y., Yu Y., Song Y. (1982) The forearm flap. Clin Plast Surg 9:21–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 18.
    Biemer E., Stock W. (1983) Total thumb reconstruction: a one-stage reconstruction using an osteocutaneous forearm flap. Br J Plast Surg 36:52–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 19.
    Yajima H., Tamai S., Mizumoto S., Fukui A., Inada Y. (1989) Reverse flow radial forearm flap transfer in hand surgery (in Japanese). J Jpn Soc Surg Hand 6:853–856Google Scholar
  273. 20.
    Yajima H. (1996) Clinical findings in the use of reverse flow island flaps: The importance of venous drainage (in Japanese). Jpn J Plast Reconstr Surg 39:1023–1031Google Scholar
  274. 21.
    Yajima H., Tamai S., Yamauchi T., Mizumoto S. (1999) Osteocutaneous radial forearm flap for hand reconstruction. J Hand Surg 24A:594–603Google Scholar
  275. 22.
    Breidenbach W.C., Terzis J.K. (1986) The blood supply of vascularized nerve grafts. J Reconstr Microsurg 3:43–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 23.
    Bardsley A.F., Soutar D.S., Elliot D., Bachelor A.G. (1990) Reducing morbidity in the radial forearm flap donor site. Plast Reconstr Surg 86:287–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 24.
    Yoshimura M., Imura S., Shimamura K., Yamauchi S., Nomura S. (1984) Peroneal flap transfer for reconstruction in the extremity: preliminary report. Plast Reconstr Surg 74:402–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 25.
    Tamai S., Yajima H., Inada Y. (1999) Secondary reconstruction of the extensor tendons and overlying soft tissue deficiency. Hand Clin 15:455–466Google Scholar
  279. 26.
    Yajima H., Tamai S., Fukui A., Ono H., Inada Y. (1996) Free and island flap transfer for soft tissue defects in the hand and forearm. Microsurg 17:150–154Google Scholar
  280. 1.
    Upton J., Rogers C., Durham-Smith G., Swartz W.M. (1986) Clinical applications of free temporoparietal flaps in hand reconstruction. J Hand Surg 11A:475–483Google Scholar
  281. 2.
    Hirase Y., Kojima T., Bang H.H. (1991) Double-layered free temporal fascia flap as a two-layered tendon-gliding surface. Plast Reconstr Surg 88:707–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 3.
    Hing D.N., Buncke H.J., Alpert B.S. (1988) Use of the temporoparietal free fascial flap in the upper extremity. Plast Reconstr Surg 81:534–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 4.
    Woods J.M. IV, Shack R.B., Hagen K.F. (1995) Free temporoparietal fascia flap in reconstruction of the lower extremity. Ann Plast Surg 34:501–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 5.
    Serafin D., Upton J. (1996) The temporal fascia flap. In: Serafin D. (ed) Atlas of microsurgical composite tissue transplantation. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 323–338Google Scholar
  285. 6.
    Strauch B., Yu H.L. (1993) Temporoparietal fascia. In: Strauch B., Yu H.L. (eds) Atlas of microvascular surgery: anatomy and operative approaches. Thieme Medical Publishers, New York, pp 526–533Google Scholar
  286. 7.
    Munro I.R., Fearon J.A. (1994) The coronal incision revisited. Plast Reconstr Surg 93:185–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 1.
    tDeBoer H.H. (1988) The history of bone grafts. Clin Orthop 226:292–298Google Scholar
  288. 2.
    Weiland A.J. (1981) Vascularized free bone transplants. J Bone Joint Surg 63A:166–169Google Scholar
  289. 3.
    Huntington T.W. (1905) Case of bone transference. Use of a segment of fibula to supply a defect in the tibia. Ann Surg 41:249–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 4.
    Hellstadius A. (1942) On the ability of bone tissue to survive in pedicle bone graft. Acta Chir Scand 86:85–109Google Scholar
  291. 5.
    Meyer M.H. (1985) Osteonecrosis of the femoral head treated with the muscle pedicle graft. Orthop Clin North Am 16:741–745Google Scholar
  292. 6.
    Strauch B., Bloomberg A.E., Lewin M.L. (1971) An experimental approach to mandibular replacement: island vascular composite rib grafts. Br J Plast Surg 24:334–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 7.
    Östrup L.T., Fredrickson J.M. (1974) Distant transfer of a free living bone graft by microvascular anastomoses; an experimental study. Plast Reconstr Surg 54:274–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 8.
    Taylor G.I., Miller G.D.H., Ham F.J. (1975) The free vascularized bone graft: a clinical extension of microvascular techniques. Plast Reconstr Surg 55:533–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 9.
    Enneking W.F., Eady J.L., Burchardt H. (1980) Autogenous cortical bone grafts in the reconstruction of segmental deficits. J Bone Joint Surg 62A:1039–1057Google Scholar
  296. 10.
    Yajima H., Tamai S., Mizumoto S., Sugimura M., Horiuchi K. (1992) Vascularized fibula graft for reconstruction after resection of aggressive benign and malignant bone tumors. Microsurgery 13:227–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 11.
    Weiland A.J., Moore J.R., Daniel R.K. (1984) The efficacy of free tissue transfer in the treatment of osteomyelitis. J Bone Joint Surg 66A:181–193Google Scholar
  298. 12.
    Yajima H., Tamai S., Mizumoto S., Inada Y. (1993) Vascularized fibular grafts in the treatment of osteomyelitis and infected nonunion. Clin Orthop 293:256–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 13.
    Fujimaki A., Suzuki K. (1988) Vascularized bone grafts in the treatment of osteomyelitis (in Japanese). Shujutu 42:283–288Google Scholar
  300. 14.
    Doi K. (1995) One-stage treatment of infected bone defects of the tibia with skin loss by free vascularized osteocutaneous grafts. Microsurgery 16:704–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 15.
    Yajima H., Tamai S., Ono H., Kizaki K. (1997) Vascularized bone grafts to the upper extremities. Plast Reconstr Surg 101:727–735Google Scholar
  302. 16.
    Yajima H., Tamai S. (1994) Twin-barrelled vascularized fibular grafting to the pelvis and lower extremity. Clin Orthop 303:178–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 17.
    Yajima H., Tamai S., Ono H., Kizaki K., Yamauchi T. (1999) Free vascularized fibula grafts in surgery of the upper limb. J Reconstr Microsurg 15:515–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 18.
    Mizumoto S., Tamai S., Goshima J., Yajima H., Fukui A., Masuhar K. (1986) Experimental study of vascularized tibiofibula graft in inbred rats. A preliminary report. J Reconstr Microsurg 3:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 19.
    Minami A. (1989) Vascularized iliac osteocutaneous flap based on the deep circumflex iliac vessels: experience in 13 cases. Microsurgery 10:99–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 20.
    Teot L., Bosse J.P., Moufarrege R., Papillon J., Beauregard G. (1981) The scapula crest pedicled bone graft. Int J Microsurg 3:257–262Google Scholar
  307. 21.
    Yajima H., Tamai S., Yamauchi T., Mizumoto S. (1999) Osteocutaneous radial forearm flap for hand reconstruction. J Hand Surg 24A:594–603Google Scholar
  308. 22.
    Zaidemberg C., Siebert J.W., Angrigiani C. (1991) A new vascularized bone graft for scaphoid nonunion. J Hand Surg 16A:474–478Google Scholar
  309. 23.
    Sheetz K.K., Bishop A., Berger R.A. (1995) The arterial blood supply of the distal radius and ulna and its potential use in vascularized pedicled bone grafts. J Hand Surg 20A:902–914Google Scholar
  310. 24.
    Sakai K., Doi K., Kawai S. (1991) Free vascularized thin corticoperiosteal graft. Plast Reconstr Surg 87:290–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 1.
    Taylor G.I., Miller G.D., Ham F.J. (1975) The free vascularized bone graft. A clinical extension of microvascular techniques. Plast Reconstr Surg 55:533–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. 2.
    Ueba Y., Fujikawa S. (1983) Nine years follow-up of a vascularized fibular graft in neurofibromatosis. A case report and literature review. Orthop Surg Traumatol (Jpn) 26:595–600Google Scholar
  313. 3.
    Fujimaki A. (1977) Free vascularized bone graft to fill up bone defect. Traumatology (Jpn) 20:537–542Google Scholar
  314. 4.
    Murase M., Adachi N., Ikuta Y., Watari S., Watari S., Kubo T. (1977) Clinical application of the free vascularized bone graft following tumor resection. Clin Orthop Surg (Jpn) 12:540–547Google Scholar
  315. 5.
    Tamai S., Sakamoto H., Hori Y., Tatsumi Y., Nakamura Y., Shimizu T., Fukui A. (1980) Vascularized fibula transplantation: a report of 8 cases in the treatment of traumatic bony defect or pseudarthrosis of long bones. Int J Microsurg 2:205–212Google Scholar
  316. 6.
    Weiland A.J. (1981) Current Concepts Review. Vascularized free bone transplants. J Bone Joint Surg 63A:166–169Google Scholar
  317. 7.
    Fujimaki A., Yamauchi Y. (1983) Vascularized fibular grafting for treatment of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head-preliminary results in four cases. Microsurgery 4:17–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 8.
    Toh S., Tohno S., Harata S., Ohmi Y., Ohtake S., Nakano S., Ueyama K., Moriyama A., Hayashi A. (1985) The vascularized fibula graft for severe kyphosis of spondylitis tuberculosa. Clin Orthop Surg (Jpn) 20:1431–1435Google Scholar
  319. 9.
    Doi K., Kawai S., Sumiura S., Sakai K. (1988) Anterior cervical fusion using the free vascularized fibular graft. Spine 13:1239–1244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 10.
    Chen Z.W., Yan W. (1983) The study and clinical application of the osteocutaneous flap of fibula. Microsurgery 4:11–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 11.
    Yoshimura M., Shimamura K., Iwai Y., Yamauchi S., Ueno T. (1983) Free vascularized fibular transplant. A new method for monitoring circulation of the grafted fibula. J Bone Joint Surg 65A:1295–1301Google Scholar
  322. 12.
    Ihara K., Doi K., Sakai K., Kuwano N., Kawai S. (1992) Fracture of free vascularized fibular grafts. J Jpn Soc Reconstr Microsurg (Jpn) 5:86–95Google Scholar
  323. 13.
    Toh S., Harata S., Ohmi Y., Nakahara K., Satoh F., Tsubo K., Nakamura R., Nishikawa S. (1988) Dual vascularized fibula transfer on a single vascular pedicle: A useful technique in long bone reconstruction. J Reconstr Microsurg 4:217–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 14.
    O’Brien B.M., Gumley G.J., Dooley B.J., Pribaz J.J. (1988) Folded free vascularized fibula transfer. Plast Reconstr Surg 81:311–318Google Scholar
  325. 15.
    Jones N.F., Swartz W.M., Mears D.C., Jupiter J.B., Grossman A. (1988) The “double barrel” free vascularized fibular bone graft. Plast Reconstr Surg 81:378–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 16.
    Chacha P.B., Ahmed M., Daruwalla J.S. (1981) Vascular pedicle graft of the ipsilateral fibula for non-union of the tibia with a large defect. An experimental and clinical study. J Bone Joint Surg 63B:244–253Google Scholar
  327. 17.
    Ono H., Yajima H., Mizumoto S., Miyauchi Y., Mii Y., Tamai S. (1997) Vascularized fibular graft for reconstruction of the wrist after excision of giant cell tumor. Plast Reconstr Surg 99:1086–1093PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 18.
    Tsai T.M., Ludwig L., Tonkin M. (1986) Vascularized fibular epiphyseal transfer. A clinical study. Clin Orthop 210:228–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. 19.
    Tamai S., Sakamoto H., Fukui A., Shimizu T., Kamikubo T., Masuhara K., Tatsumi Y. (1983) Vascularized fibula graft for the treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of long bone. Orthop Surg Traumatol (Jpn) 26:601–612Google Scholar
  330. 20.
    Langenskiöld A. (1967) Pseudarthrosis of the fibula and progressive valgus deformity of the ankle in children: Treatment by fusion of the distal tibial and fibular metaphyses. Review of three cases. J Bone Joint Surg 49A:463–470Google Scholar
  331. 1.
    Teot L., Bosse J.P., Moufarrege R., Papillon J., Beauregard G. (1981) The scapular crest pedicle grafts. Int J Microsurg 3:257–262Google Scholar
  332. 2.
    Swartz W.M., Banis J.C., Newton E.D., et al. (1986) The osteocutaneous scapular flap for mandibular reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 77:530–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 3.
    Sekiguchi J., Kobayashi S., Ohmori K. (1993) Use of the osteo-cutaneous free scapular flap on the lower extremities. Plast Reconstr Surg 91:103–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 4.
    Deraemaecker R., van Thienen C., Lejour M., Dor P. (1988) The serratus anterior scapular free flap: a new osteomuscular unit for reconstruction after radical head and neck surgery (Abstract). In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Head and Neck CancerGoogle Scholar
  335. 5.
    Coleman N., Sultan M.R. (1991) The bipedicled osteocutaneous scapula flap: a new subscapular system free flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 87:682–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 6.
    Becker A., Schenk C., Klesper B., Koebke J.. (1998) Comparative densitometric study of iliac crest and scapula bone in relation to osseous integrated dental implants in microvascular mandibular reconstruction. J Cranio Mandibular Surg 26:75–83Google Scholar
  337. 7.
    Allen R.J., Dupin C.L., Dreschnack P.A. (1994) The latissimus dorsi/scapular bone flap (the latissimus dorsi bone flap). Plast Reconstr Surg 94:988–996PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. 8.
    Hirachi K., Minami A., Kato H., et al. (1998) Anatomical study on vascularized scapular bone flap. J Jpn Soc Reconstr Microsurg 11:19–20Google Scholar
  339. 1.
    O’Brien B M.C. (1977) Microvascular reconstructive surgery. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 283–284Google Scholar
  340. 2.
    Taylor G., Watson N. (1978) One-stage repair of compound leg defects with revascularized flap of groin skin and iliac bone. Plast Reconstr Surg 61:494–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 3.
    Tamai S. (1979) Iliac osteocutaneous neurosensory flap. In: Serafin D., Buncke H. (eds) Microsurgical composite tissue transplantation. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 391–397Google Scholar
  342. 4.
    Taylor G., Townsent P., Corlett R. (1979) Superiority of the deep circumflex iliac vessel as the supply for free groin flap: clinical work. Reconstr Surg 64:754–759Google Scholar
  343. 5.
    Sanders R., Mayoui B. (1979) New vascularized bone graft transferred by microvascular anastomosis as a free flap. Br J Surg 66:787–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 6.
    Huang G., Hu R., Miao H., Yin Z., Lan T., Pan G. (1985) Microvascular free transfer of iliac bone based on the deep superior branches of the superior gluteal vessels. Plast Reconstr Surg 75:68–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 7.
    Satoh T., Tuchiya M., Harii K. (1983) A vascularized iliac musculoperiosteal free flap transfer: a case report. Br J Plast Surg 36:109–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 8.
    Masquelet A., Romana C., Regazzoni P. (1989) Vascularized periosteal graft. In: Aebi M., Regazzoni P. (eds) Transplantation. Springer, Berlin, pp 259–262Google Scholar
  347. 9.
    Crock H (1996) An atlas of vascular anatomy of the skeleton and spinal cord. Martin Dunitz, London, pp 193-195Google Scholar
  348. 1.
    Sakai K., Doi K., Tamaru K., Yamamoto M., Kawai S. (1988) Free vascularized bone and periosteal graft for pseudoarthrosis in the upper limb. J Jpn Soc Surg Hand 5:698–704Google Scholar
  349. 2.
    Kiyoshige K., Watanabe Y. (1993) Vascularized metatarsal bone graft for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the talus. J Jpn Soc Surg Foot 14:283–284Google Scholar
  350. 3.
    Sadahiro T., Igawa K., Kawachi T., Fujita S., Okada M., Hoshijima K., Hirosue Y., Okutani Y., Nonami S., Nishiyama T., Noguchi M., Yamamato H. (1986) Vascularized bone graft on avascular necrosis following traumatic fracture. Cent Jpn J Orthop Traumat 29:680–683Google Scholar
  351. 4.
    Inoue S., Harada S., Toh S., Nakahara K., Nakamura R. (1991) Vascularized fibula graft for the treatment of posttraumatic avascular necrosis of the talus. J Jpn S R M 4:85–86Google Scholar
  352. 5.
    Muramatsu K., Doi K., Ihara K., Hiura Y., Kawai S. (1990) Vascularized cancelo-corticoperiosteal graft from the medial condyle of the femur applied to treatment of avascular necrosis of the talus. Cent Jpn J Orthop Traumat 33:2276–2278Google Scholar
  353. 6.
    Sakai K., Doi K., Kawai S. (1993) Free vascularized thin corticoperiosteal graft. Plast Reconstr Surg 87:290–298Google Scholar
  354. 1.
    Nicoladoni C. (1900) Daumenplastik und organischer Ersatz der Fingerspitze (Anticheiroplastik und Daktyloplastik). Langenbecks Arch Chir 61:606Google Scholar
  355. 2.
    Buncke H.J., Buncke C.M., Schultz W.P. (1966) Immediate Nicoladoni procedure in the rhesus monkey, or hallux-tohand transplantation, utilizing microminiature vascular anastomoses. Br J Plast Surg 19:332–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. 3.
    Cobbett J.R. (1969) Free digital transfer-report of a case of transfer of a great toe to replace amputated thumb. J Bone Joint Surg B51:677–679Google Scholar
  357. 4.
    Replantation surgery in China. Report of the American Replantation Mission to China (1973). Plast Reconstr Surg 52:476–489Google Scholar
  358. 5.
    Tamai S., Hori Y., Tatsumi Y., Okuda M. (1977) Halluxto-thumb transfer with microsurgical tehnique: a case report in a 45-year-old woman. J Hand Surg 2:152–155Google Scholar
  359. 6.
    Ohmori K., Harii K. (1975) Transplantation of a toe to an amputated finger. Hand 7:134–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 7.
    Tsai T.M., Jupiter J.B., Wolff T.W., Atasoy E. (1981) Reconstruction of severe transmetacarpal mutilating hand injuries by combined second and third toe transfer. J Hand Surg 6:319–328Google Scholar
  361. 8.
    Lister G.D., Kalisman M., Tsai T.M. (1983) Reconstruction of the hand with free microneurovascular toe-to-hand transfer: experience with 54 toe transfers. Plast Reconstr Surg 71:372–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. 9.
    O’Brien B.M., Brenner M.D., MacLeod A.M. (1978) Simultaneous double toe transfer for severely disabled hands. Hand 10:232–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 10.
    Gilbert A. (1976) Composite tissue transfers from the foot: anatomic basis and surgical technique. In: Daniller A.I., Strauch B. (eds) Symposium on microsurgery. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 231–242Google Scholar
  364. 11.
    Wang W. (1983) Keys to successful second toe-to-hand transfer: a review of 30 cases. J Hand Surg 8:902–906Google Scholar
  365. 12.
    Yoshizu T. (1996) Reconstruction for severely damaged hand by double toe transfer (in Japanese). Plast Reconstr Surg (Advance Series 19):234–252Google Scholar
  366. 1.
    Lexer P.R. (1925) Joint transplantations and arthroplasty. Surg Gynecol Obst 40:782–809Google Scholar
  367. 2.
    Herndon C.H., Chase S.W. (1952) Experimental studies in the transplantation of whole joints. J Bone Joint Surg 34A:564–578Google Scholar
  368. 3.
    Graham W.G. (1954) Transplantation of joints to replace diseased or damaged articulations in the hand. Am J Surg 88:136–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. 4.
    Entin M.A., Alger J.R., Baird R.M. (1962) Experimental and clinical transplantation of autogenous whole joints. J Bone Joint Surg 44A:1518–1536Google Scholar
  370. 5.
    Kettelkamp D.B. (1972) Experimental autologous joint transfer. Clin Orthop 87:138–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. 6.
    Goldberg N.H., Watson H.K. (1982) Composite toe (phalanx and epiphysis) transfers in the reconstruction of the aphalangic hand. J Hand Surg 7:454–459Google Scholar
  372. 7.
    Slome D., Reeves B. (1966) Experimental homotransplantation of the knee joint. Lancet 2:205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. 8.
    Daniel G., Entin M.A., Kahr D.S. (1971) Autogenous transplantation in the dog of a metacarpophalangeal joint with preserved neurovascular bundle. Can J Surg 14:253–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. 9.
    O’Brien B.M. (1977) Microvascular free small joint transfer. In: O’Brien B.M. (ed) Microvascular reconstructive surgery. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 284–289Google Scholar
  375. 10.
    Watanabe M., Katsumi M., Yoshizu T., Tajima T. (1978) Experimental study of autogenous toe-joint transplantation. Anatomical study of vascular pattern of toe-joints as a base of vascularized autogenous joint transplantation (in Japanese). Orthop Surg (Seikeigeka) 29:1317–1320Google Scholar
  376. 11.
    Watanabe M., Katsumi M., Yoshizu T., Tajima T. (1980) Experimental study and clinical application of free toejoint transplantation with vascular pedicle (in Japanese). Orthop Surg (Seikeigeka) 31:1411–1416Google Scholar
  377. 12.
    Hurwitz P.J. (1979) Experimental transplantation of small joints by microvascular anastomoses. Plast Reconstr Surg 66:221–231Google Scholar
  378. 13.
    Buncke H.J., Daniller A.I., Schultz W.P., Chase R.A. (1967) The fate of autogenous whole joints transplanted by microvascular anastomoses. Plast Reconstr Surg 39:333–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. 14.
    Foucher G., Sammut D., Citron N. (1990) Free vascularized toe-joint transfer in hand reconstruction: a series of 25 patients. J Reconstr Microsurg 6:201–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. 15.
    Foucher G., Lenoble E., Smith D. (1994) Free and island vascularized joint transfer for proximal interphalangeal reconstruction: a series of 27 cases. J Hand Surg 19A:8–16Google Scholar
  381. 16.
    Tsai T.M., Jupiter J.B., Kutz J.E., Kleinert H.E. (1982) Vascularized autogenous whole joint transfer in the hand. A clinical study. J Hand Surg 7:335–342Google Scholar
  382. 17.
    O’Brien B.M., Gould J.S., Morrison W.A., Russel R.C., MacLeod A.M., Pribaz J.J. (1982) Free vascularized small joint transfer to the hand. J Hand Surg 9A:634–641Google Scholar
  383. 18.
    Yoshizu T., Watanabe M., Tajima T. (1985) Experimental study and clinical application of free toe joint transplantation with vascular anastomosis. In: Tubiana R. (ed) The hand. Saunders, Philadelphia, Vol 2, pp 685–697Google Scholar
  384. 19.
    Yoshizu T. (1993) Free vascularized whole toe joint transfer to the hand (in Japanese). J Joint Surg 12:63–75Google Scholar
  385. 20.
    Seki T., Tajima T., Kijima H., Yoshizu T., Watanabe M. (1987) Long term follow-up of the free vascularized whole toe joint with growing epiphysis transfered to the hand (in Japanese). J Jpn Soc Surg Hand 4:300–304Google Scholar
  386. 21.
    Singer D.I., O’Brien B.M., McLeod A.M., Morrison W.A., Angel M.F. (1988) Long-term follow-up of free vascularized joint transfers to the hand in children. J Hand Surg 13A:776–783Google Scholar
  387. 22.
    Tomita Y., Tsai T.M., Steryers C., Ogden L., Jupiter J.B., Kutz J.E. (1986) The role of the epiphyseal and metaphyseal circulations on longitudinal growth in the dog: an experimental study. J Hand Surg 11A:375–382Google Scholar
  388. 1.
    Morrison W.A., O’Brien B.M., MacLeod A.M. (1980) Thumb reconstruction with a free neurovascular wrap around flap from the big toe. J Hand Surg 5:575–583Google Scholar
  389. 2.
    Doi K., Hattori S., Kwai S., et al. (1981) Thumb reconstruction with a wrap-around flap from the great toe and iliac bone graft (in Japanese). Orthop Surg 32:1635–1638Google Scholar
  390. 3.
    Katsumi M., Watanabe M., Kameda I., et al. (1983) Investigation of reconstruction of the thumb by using wrap around flap method (in Japanese). Orthop Surg 34:1471–1474Google Scholar
  391. 4.
    Ohkubo K., Murota K., Tomita Y., et al. (1983) Experience of wrap around flap: 1st report (in Japanese). Orthop Surg 34:1475–1477Google Scholar
  392. 5.
    Yoshizu T. (1991) Sensory reconstruction in peripheral nerve injury of the upper limb (in Japanese). J Jpn Soc Surg Hand 7:889–892Google Scholar
  393. 6.
    Yoshizu T., Katsumi M., Watanabe M., et al. (1987) Finger reconstruction with a modified wrap around flap from the big toe (in Japanese). J Jpn Soc Surg Hand 4:284–288Google Scholar
  394. 7.
    Foucher G., Merle M., Maneaud M., et al. (1980) Microsurgical free partial toe transfer in hand reconstruction: a report of 12 cases. J Plast Reconstr Surg 65:616–626Google Scholar
  395. 1.
    Nicoladoni C. (1897) Daumenplastik. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 10:663Google Scholar
  396. 2.
    Buncke H.J. Jr, Schulz W.P. (1965) Experimental digital amputation and reimplantation. Plast Reconstr Surg 36:62–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  397. 3.
    Cobbett J.R. (1969) Free digital transfer. J Bone Joint Surg 51:677–679Google Scholar
  398. 4.
    O’Brien B.M., MacLeod A.M., Sykes P.J., Donahoe S. (1975) Hallux-to-hand transfer. Hand 7:128–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. 5.
    Foucher G., Merle M., Maneaud M., Michon J. (1980) Microsurgical free compound toe transfer in hand reconstruction: a report of 12 cases. Plast Reconstr Surg 65:616–626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. 6.
    Morrison W.A., O’Brien B.M., MacLeod A.M. (1980) Thumb reconstruction with a free neurovascular wrap-around flap from the big toe. J Hand Surg 5:575–583Google Scholar
  401. 7.
    Doi K., Hattori S., Kawai S. (1981) Thumb reconstruction with a wrap-around flap from the great toe and iliac bone graft. Jpn J Orthoped Surg 32:1635–1638Google Scholar
  402. 8.
    Koshima I., Soeda S., Takase T., Yamasaki M. (1988) Free vascularized nail grafts. J Hand Surg 13A:29–32Google Scholar
  403. 9.
    Koshima I., Ohno A., Yamasaki M. (1989) Free vascularized osteo-onychocutaneous flap for reconstruction of the distal phalanx of the fingers. J Reconstr Microsurg 5:337–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  404. 10.
    Nakayama Y., Iino T., Uchida A., Kiyosawa T., Soeda S. (1990) Vascularized free nail grafts nourished by arterial inflow from the venous system. Plast Reconstr Surg 85:239–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. 11.
    Shibata M., Seki T., Yoshizu T., Saito H., Tajima T. (1991) Microsurgical toenail transfer to the hand. Plast Reconstr Surg 88:102–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. 12.
    Wei F.C., Chen H.C., Chuang D.C., Chen S., Noordhoff M.S. (1991) Second toe wrap-around flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 88:837–842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. 13.
    Foucher G., Braun F.M., Smith D.J. (1991) Custom-made free vascularized compound toe transfer for traumatic dorsal loss of the thumb. Plast Reconstr Surg 87:310–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. 14.
    Koshima I., Moriguchi T., Soeda S., Ishii M., Murashita T. (1992) Free thin osteo-onychocutaneous flaps from the big toe for reconstruction of the distal phalanx of the fingers. Br J Plast Surg 45:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  409. 15.
    Foucher G., Sammut D. (1992) Aesthetic improvement of the nail by the “illusion” technique in partial toe transfer for thumb reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg 28:195–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. 16.
    Koshima I., Moriguchi T., Soeda S. (1991) One-stage reconstruction for amputated thumbs with melanoma. J Reconstr Microsurg 7:113–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. 1.
    Shintomi Y., Ohura T. (1982) The use of muscle vascularized pedicle flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg 70:725–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  412. 2.
    Shintomi Y., Nohira K., Yamamoto Y., Minakawa H., Ohura T. (1995) MVP (muscle vascularized pedicle) flap and bone. Panel Discussion, Yokohama: IPRASGoogle Scholar
  413. 3.
    Igawa H.H., Minakawa M., Sugihara T. (1998) Functional alveolar ridge reconstruction with prefabricated iliac crest free flap and osseointegrated implants after hemimaxillectomy. Plast Reconstr Surg 102:2420–2424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. 4.
    Abbase E.A. Shenaq S.M., Spira M., El-Falaky M.H. (1995) Prefabricated flaps: Experimental and clinical review. Plast Reconstr Surg 96:1218–1225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. 5.
    Diller J.G., Hartwell S.W., Anderson R. (1966) The mesenteric vascular pedicle: Review of its clinical uses and report of experiments in dogs. Cleve Clin Q 33:163Google Scholar
  416. 6.
    Washio H. (1971) An intestinal conduit for free transplantation of other tissues. Plast Reconstr Surg 48:48–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. 7.
    Orticochea M.A. (1971) New method for total reconstruction of the nose: The ears as donor areas. Br J Plast Surg 24:225–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. 8.
    Erol O.O., Spira M. (1980) Secondary musculoctuaneous flap: An experimental study. Plast Reconstr Surg 65:277–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. 9.
    Yao S.T. (1981) Vascular implantation into skin flap: Experimental study and clinical application: A preliminary report. Plast Reconst Surg 68:404–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. 10.
    Hirase Y., Varauri F.A., Buncke H.J., Newlin L.Y. (1987) Customized prefabricated neovascularized free flaps. Microsurg 8:218–224Google Scholar
  421. 11.
    Yamamoto Y., Minakawa H., Sugihara T., Shintomi Y., Nohira K., Yoshida T., Igawa H., Ohura T. (1994) Facial reconstruction with free-tissue transfer. Plast Reconstr Surg 94:483–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. 12.
    Khuori R.K., Ozbek M.R., Hruza G.J., Young V.L. (1995) Facial reconstruction with prefabricated induced expanded (PIE) supraclavicular skin flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg 95:1007–1017Google Scholar
  423. 13.
    Igawa H.H., Minakawa M., Sugihara T., Homma K. (1995) Cheek reconstruction with an expanded prefabricated musculocutaneous free flap: case report. Br J Plast Surg 48:569–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. 14.
    Furukawa H., Yamamoto Y., Kimura C., Igawa H.H., Sugihara T. (1998) Clinical application of expanded free flap based on primary or secondary vascularization. Plast Reconstr Surg 102:1535–1536Google Scholar
  425. 15.
    Ryan T.G. (1983) Discussion: Increased survival and vascularity of random-pattern skin flaps elevated in controlled, expanded skin. Plast Reconstr Surg 72:686–687Google Scholar
  426. 16.
    Wickman M., Herden P., Jurell G. (1991) Circulatory and metabolic changes in expanded pig skin flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg 88:650–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  427. 17.
    Homma K., Ohura T., Sugihara T., Yosida T., Hasegawa T. (1993) Prefabricated flaps using tissue expanders: An experimental study in rats. Plast Reconstr Surg 91:1098PubMedGoogle Scholar
  428. 1.
    Seidenberg B., Rosenak S.S., Hurwitt E.S., Som M.L. (1959) Immediate reconstruction of the cervical esophagus by a revascularized isolated jejunal segment. Ann Surg 149:162–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  429. 2.
    Roberts R.E., Douglass F.M. (1961) Replacement of the cervical esophagus and hypopharynx by a revascularized free jejunal autograft. N Engl J Med 264:342–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  430. 3.
    McKee D.M., Peters C.R. (1978) Reconstruction of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus with microvascular jejunal transplant. Clin Plast Surg 5:305–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. 4.
    Hester T.R., McConnel F.S., Nahai F., Jurkiewicz M.J., Brown R.G. (1980) Reconstruction of cervical esophagus, hypopharynx and oral cavity using free jejunal transfer. Am J Surg 140:487–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. 5.
    Meyers W.C., Seigler H.F., Hanks J.B., Thompson W.M., Postlethwait R., Jones R.S., Akwari O.K., Cole T.B. (1980) Postoperative function of “free” jejunal transplants for replacement of the cervical esophagus. Ann Surg 192:439–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. 6.
    Reuther J.F., Steinau H., Wagner R. (1984) Reconstruction of large defects in the oropharynx with a revascularized intestinal graft: An experimental and clinical report. Plast Reconstr Surg 73:345–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. 7.
    Jurkiewicz M.J. (1984) Reconstructive surgery of the cervical esophagus. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 88:893–897PubMedGoogle Scholar
  435. 8.
    Nozaki M., Huang T.T., Hayashi M., Endo M., Hirayama T. (1985) Reconstruction of the pharyngoesophagus following pharyngoesophagectomy and irradiation therapy. Plast Reconstr Surg 76:386–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  436. 9.
    Gluckman J.L., McDonough J.J., McCafferty G.J., Black R.J., Coman W.B., Cooney T.C., Bird R.J., Robinson D.W. (1985) Complications associated with free jejunal graft reconstruction of the pharyngoesophagus-A multiinstitutional experience with 52 cases. Head Neck Surg 7:200–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. 10.
    Coleman J.J. III, Searles J.M. Jr, Hester T.R., Nahai F., Zubowicz V., McConnel M.S., Jurkiewicz M.J. (1987) Ten years experience with the free jejunal autograft. Am J Surg 154:394–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  438. 11.
    Schusterman M.A., Shestak K., deVries E.J., Swartz W., Jones N., Johnson J., Myers E., Reilly J. Jr (1990) Reconstruction of the cervical esophagus: Free jejunal transfer versus gastric pull-up. Plast Reconstr Surg 85:16-21Google Scholar
  439. 12.
    Theile D.R., Robinson D.W., Theile D.E., Coman W.B. (1995) Free jejunal interposition reconstruction after pharyngolaryngectomy: 201 consecutive cases. Head Neck 17:83–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  440. 13.
    Yamamoto Y., Nohira K., Shintomi Y., Yoshida T., Minakawa H., Okushiba S., Fukuda S., Inuyama Y., Hosokawa M. (1995) Mesenteric flap in free jejunal transfers: a versatile technique for head and neck reconstruction. Head Neck 17:213–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  441. 14.
    Longmire W.P. Jr (1947) A modification of the Roux technique for antethoracic esophageal reconstruction: Anastomosis of the mesenteric and internal mammary blood vessels. Surgery 22:94–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  442. 15.
    Androsov P.I. (1956) Blood supply of mobilized intestine used for an artificial esophagus. Arch Surg 73:917–926Google Scholar
  443. 16.
    Nakayama K., Yamamoto K., Yazawa T., Makino H., Tamiya T., Akimoto S., Izumi T., Hashizume S., Odaka M. (1962) Operative procedure using the Nakayama’s microvascular anastomosing apparatus in esophageal surgery (Shokudo Geka Shujutu ni okeru Nakayamashiki saisho kekkan fungoki no shujutu jutushiki). Surgical Therapy (Geka Chiryo) 7:250–257Google Scholar
  444. 17.
    O’Rourke I.C., Threlfall G.N. (1986) Colonic interposition for oesophageal reconstruction with special reference to microvascular reinforcement of graft circulation. Aust NZ J Surg 56:767–771Google Scholar
  445. 18.
    Hirabayashi S., Miyata M., Shouzi M., Shibusawa H. (1993) Reconstruction of the thoracic esophagus, with extended jejunum used as a substitute, with the aid of microvascular anastomosis. Surgery 113:515–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. 19.
    Matsubara T., Ueda M., Nakajima T., Kamata S., Kawabata K. (1995) Elongated stomach roll with vascular microanastomosis for reconstruction of the esophagus after pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy. J Am Col Surg 180:613–615Google Scholar
  447. 20.
    Fujita H., Yamana H., Sueyoshi S., Shima I., Fujii T., Shirouzu K., Inoue Y., Kiyokawa K., Tanabe H.Y., Tai Y., Inutsuka H. (1997) Impact on outcome of additional microvascular anastomosis-Supercharge-on colon interposition for esophageal replacement: Comparative and multivariate analysis. World J Surg 21:998–1003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  448. 21.
    Nagawa H., Seto Y., Nakatsuka T., Kaizaki S., Muto T. (1997) Microvascular anastomosis for additional blood flow in reconstruction after intrathoracic esophageal carcinoma surgery. Am J Surg 173:131–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  449. 22.
    Urayama H., Ohtake H., Ohmura K., Watanabe Y. (1997) Pharyngoesophageal reconstruction with the use of vascular anastomoses: Operative modifications and long-term prognosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 113:975–981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. 23.
    Matsumoto T. (1965) Studies on esophageal reconstruction by means of the pedunculated gastric tube with additional micro-vascular anastomoses. Arch Jpn Chir 34:1118–1136Google Scholar
  451. 1.
    McLean D., Buncke H.J. (1972) Autotransplant of omentum to a large scalp defect, with microsurgical revascularization. Plast Reconstr Surg 49:268–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  452. 2.
    Harii K. (1978) Clinical application of free omental flap transfer. Clin Plast Surg 5:273–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  453. 3.
    Ohtsuka H., Kamiishi H., Shioya N. (1976) Successful free flap transfers in two diabetics. Plast Reconstr Surg 61:715–718Google Scholar
  454. 4.
    Ohtsuka H., Torikai K., Ito M. (1980) Free omental transfers to the lower limbs. Ann Plast Surg 4:70–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  455. 5.
    Hidalgo D.A. (1987) Omentum free flaps. In: Shaw W.W., Hidalgo D.A. (eds) Microsurgery in trauma. Futura Publishing, New York, pp 383–388Google Scholar
  456. 6.
    Ohtsuka H., Shioya N. (1985) The fate of free omental transfers. Br J Plast Surg 38:478–482PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshihisa Shintomi
  • Yuhei Yamamoto
  • Kunihiko Nohira
  • Hiroshi Furukawa

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations