Paré (1552) [1] described the first vascular ligature, and in 1759 Hallowell [2] repaired a wound in the brachial artery by thrusting a pin through the margins of the wound and tying a thread around it. In 1820, Jones [3] studied the healing process in vascular injuries in animals and stressed the importance of neointima, which had regenerated at the suture site. In 1877, Eck [4] performed his well-known portacaval shunt operation for portal hypertension.


Free Flap Brachial Plexus Injury Microvascular Anastomosis Vascularized Fibula Graft Free Muscle 
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© Springer Japan 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susumu Tamai

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