OPLL pp 119-128 | Cite as

Electrodiagnosis of Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament and Ossification of the Yellow Ligament

  • Kazuhiko Satomi


Electrophysiological studies in patients with cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy are useful to differentiate radiculopathy and myelopathy from motor neuron diseases and peripheral nerve lesions, and to determine the site in cervical roots or spinal cord involved. Furthermore, some electrophysiological studies can be used for spinal cord monitoring during spinal surgery.


Spinal Cord Spinal Cord Stimulation Somatosensory Evoke Potential Somatosensory Cervical Myelopathy Peripheral Nerve Stimulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Wilbourn AS, Aminoff MI (1992) Electrodiagnosis. In: Rothmann RH, Simeone FA (eds) The spine, 3d edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 155–179Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hoffman P (1918) Uber die Beziehungen der Schnenrefleze zur willkürlichen Bewegung and zum Tonus. Z Biol 68: 351–370Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Okamoto N, Murakami Y, Baba I, Watari S, Morioka D (1977) H-reflex of the upper extremities in cervical myelopathy. Hiroshima J Med Sei 26: 283–289Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Magladery LW, McDougal DB (1950) Electrophysiological studies of nerve and reflex activity in normal man. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 86: 265–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Koarashi M (1983) The clinical significance of the F-wave of upper limb on cervical myelopathy (in Japanese). J Jpn Orthop Assoc 57: 123–135Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kimura J (1983) Electrodiagnosis in diseases of nerve and muscle: principle and practice. Davis, Philadelphia, pp 353–377Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Veilleux M, Daube JR (1987) The value of ulnar somatosensory evoked potentials ( SEPs) in cervical myelopathy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 68: 415–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shimoji K, Higashi H, Kano (1971) Epidural recording of spinal electrogram in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 30: 236–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kurokawa T (1972) Spinal cord action potentials evoked by epidural stimulation of cord. Jpn J Electroencephalogr Electromyogr 1: 64–66Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tamaki T, Yamashita T, Kobayashi H, Hirayama H (1972) Spinal cord monitoring—experimental study. Jpn J Electroencephalogr Electromyogr 1: 196Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Satomi K, Okuma T, Kenmotsu K, Nakamura Y, Hirabayashi K (1988) Level diagnosis of cervical myelopathy using evoked spinal cord potentials. Spine 13: 1217–1224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shinomiya K, Furuya K, Sato R, Okamoto A, Kurosa Y, Fuchioka M (1988) Electrophysiologic diagnosis of cervical OPLL myelopathy using evoked spinal cord potentials. Spine 13: 1225–1233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Desmedt JE, Cheron G (1981) Prevertebral (oesophageal) recording of subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials in man: the spinal PI3 component and the dural nature of the spinal generators. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 52: 257–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yu YL, Jones SJ (1985) Somatosensory evoked potentials in cervical spondylosis. Brain 108: 273–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kobayashi S, Satomi K, Hoshi T, Kawai D, Shiba T, Miyasaka Y, Ishii Y, Mori K (1996) Clinical study on motor evoked potentials and short latency somatosensory evoked potentials for cervical myelopathy (in Japanese). Bessatu Seikeigeka (Orthop Surg) 29: 21–25Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kaneda A, Yamaura I, Kamikozuru M, Shinomiya K, Sato H, Yokoyama M (1985) An analysis of spinal cord potentials evoked by median nerve stimulation. In: Sharamm J, Jones SJ (eds) Spinal cord monitoring. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Okuma T (1987) Level diagnosis of cervical myelopathy using evoked spinal cord action potentials—clinical and experimental studies (in Japanese). J Jpn Orthop Assoc 61: 477–489Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Satomi K, Nishimoto GI (1984) Effects of selective spinal cord transection on evoked spinal potentials in cats. In: Hommma S, Tamaki T (eds) Fundamentals and clinical applications of spinal cord monitoring. Sakon, Tokyo, pp 87–98Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Imai T (1976) Human electrospinogram evoked by direct stimulation on the spinal cord through epidural space (in Japanese). J Jpn Orthop Assoc 50: 1037–1056Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Soeda S, Satomi K, Hirabayashi K (1990) Experimental studies on spinal cord function using evoked action potentials. Int Orthop 14: 151–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Satomi K, Nishimoto GI (1985) Comparison of evoked spinal potentials by stimulation of the sciatic nerve and the spinal cord. Spine 10: 884–890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tamaki T, Noguchi T, Takano H, Tsuji H, Nakagawa T, Imai K, Inoue S (1984) Spinal cord monitoring as a clinical utilization of the spinal evoked potential. Clin Orthop 184: 58–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Deecke L, Tator CH (1973) Neurophysiology assessment of afferent and efferent conduction in the injured spinal cord of monkeys. J Neurosurg 39: 65–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Merton PA, Morton HB (1980) Stimulation of the cerebral cortex in the intact human subject. Nature 285: 227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Levy WJ, York DH, EcCaffrey M, Tanzer F (1984) Motor evoked potentials from transcranical stimulation of the motor cortex in humans. Neurosurgery (Baltimore) 15: 287–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kitagawa H, Itoh T, Takano H, Takakuwa K, Yamamoto N, Yamada H, Tsuji H (1989) Motor evoked potential monitoring during upper cervical spine surgery. Spine 14: 1078–1083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ogawa J, Satomi K, Ikai T, Hirabayashi K (1992)Google Scholar
  28. Intraoperative spinal cord monitoring with evoked spinal cord potentials elicited by transcranial electrical stimulation. Presented at 20th annual meeting of the Cervical Spine Research Society, Palm Desert, CA, USA, Dec 3–5Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    Matsuda H, Nakata N, Yasunami T, Yanai N, Jou I, Yoshimura M, Shimazu A (1987) Distal nerve evoked potential from transcranical stimulation of the cerebral cortex (in Japanese). Shinkeishinpo (Adv Neurol Sei) 32: 124–137Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    Baker AT, Jalinous R, Freston IL (1985) Noninvasive magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex. Lancet i: 1106–1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    Dvorak J, Herdmann J, Thelier R, Grob D (1991) Magnetic stimulation of motor cortex and motor roots for painless evaluation of central and proximal peripheral motor pathways. Spine 8: 955–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    Hess CW, Mills KR, Murry NMF (1986) Measurement of central motor conduction in multiple sclerosis by magnetic brain stimulation. Lancet 2: 355–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 32.
    Iizuka T, Azuma H, Tanaka H, Sugioka H, Kondo T (1991)Magnetic transcutaneous stimulation of the motor pathway in spinal cord disorders. In: Shimoji K, Kurokawa T, Tamaki T, Willis WD (eds) Spinal cord monitoring and electrodiagnosis. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 253–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 33.
    Herdmann J, Lumenta CS, Huse KO (1993) Magnetic stimulation for monitoring of motor pathways in spinal procedures. Spine 18: 551–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 34.
    Thompson PD, Day BL, Crockard HA, Calder I, Murray NMF, Rothwell JC, Marsden CD (1991) Intra-operative recording of motor tract potentials at the cervico-medullary junction following scalp electrical and magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex. Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 54: 618–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 35.
    Satomi K, Okuma T (1987) Electrodiagnosis of the ossification of the spinal ligament (in Japanese). Seikeigeka Mook (Orthop Surg) 50: 195–207Google Scholar
  37. 36.
    Baba H, Tomita K, Kawahara N, Kikuchi Y, Imura S (1992) Spinal cord evoked potentials in thoracic myelopathy with multisegmental vertebral involvement. Spine 17: 1291–1295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazuhiko Satomi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryKyorin University School of MedicineMitaka, Tokyo, 181Japan

Personalised recommendations