Advertisement

Observation of Atmospheric Neutrinos

  • Takaaki Kajita

Abstract

Atmospheric neutrinos arise from the decay of secondaries (π, K and μ) produced by primary cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. In the energy range below 1GeV, where all secondaries decay, we roughly expect that (v μ + v̄ μ )/(v e + v̄ e ) ≃2. This is because a π-decay produces a v μ and a μ; the μ, when it decays, produces another v μ and a v e . These neutrinos enter into the detector from all directions nearly isotropically. The path length of the neutrinos (from the production point to the detector) ranges from a few km to 13000km, the diameter of the earth. In this article we describe recent measurements of atmospheric neutrinos by large underground detectors. Some of the experiments have observed that the (v μ + v̄ μ )/(v e + v̄ e ) ratio is significantly smaller than expected. The interpretation of these interesting results, the future prospect on atmospheric neutrinos and related neutrino physics are also described. In most parts of this article, when mention is made of neutrinos, we imply both neutrinos and antineutrinos.

Keywords

Monte Carlo Neutrino Oscillation Atmospheric Neutrino Neutrino Interaction Particle Identification 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    K. S. Hirata et al, Phys. Lett. B 205 (1988) 416.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    J. G. Learned, S. Pakvasa and T. J. Weiler, Phys. Lett. B 207 (1988) 79;ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [2a]
    V. Barger and K. Whisnant, Phys. Lett. B 209 (1988) 365;ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [2b]
    K. Hidaka, M. Honda and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61 (1988) 1537.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [3]
    L. V. Volkova, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 31 (1980) 784; private communication.Google Scholar
  6. [4]
    T. K. Gaisser, T. Stanev and G. Barr, Phys. Rev. D 38 (1988) 85.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [5]
    G. Barr, T. K. Gaisser and T. Stanev, Phys. Rev. D 39 (1989) 3532.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [6]
    M. Aglietta et al., Europhys. Lett. 8 (1989) 611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [7]
    Ch. Berger et al, Phys. Lett. B 227 (1989) 489;ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [7a]
    Ch. Berger et al., Phys. Lett. B 245 (1990) 305.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [8]
    D. Casper et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 66 (1991) 2561.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [9]
    M. Honda, in this book.Google Scholar
  13. [10]
    M. Nakahata et al, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 55 (1986) 3786.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [11]
    S. J. Barish et al, Phys. Rev. D 19 (1979) 2521.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [12]
    C. H. Llewellyn Smith, Phys. Rep. 3C (1972) 261.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [13]
    S. J. Barish et al, Phys. Rev. D 16 (1977) 3103.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [14]
    G. L. Fogli and G. Nardulli, Nucl. Phys. B160 (1979) 116.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [15]
    D. Rein and L. M. Sehgal, Ann. Phys. 133 (1981) 79.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [16]
    H. Deden et al., Nucl. Phys. B85, (1975) 269.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [17]
    N. J. Baker et al., Phys. Rev. D 25 (1982) 617.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [18]
    F. A. Brieva and A. Dellafiore, Nucl. Phys. A43 (1977) 445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [19]
    O. C. Allkofer, K. Carstensen and W. D. Dau, Phys. Lett. 36B (1971) 425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [20]
    G. Battistoni et al., Nucl. Inst. Meth. A245 (1986) 277.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [21]
    G. Battistoni et al., Phys. Lett. 133B (1983) 454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [22]
    Ch. Berger et al, Nucl. Inst. Meth. A262 (1987) 463.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [23]
    R. Becker-Szendy et al., submitted for publication in Nucl. Inst. Meth.; Boston University Preprint No. BUHEP-92–6.Google Scholar
  27. [24]
    M. Takita, Doctor Thesis, University of Tokyo (February 1989), ICR-Report-186–89–3.Google Scholar
  28. [25]
    H. Lee and Y. S. Koh, Nuovo Cimento, 105B (1990) 883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [26]
    K. S. Hirata et al, Phys. Lett. B 280 (1992) 146.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [27]
    M. Honda et al., Phys. Lett. B248 (1990) 883.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  31. [28]
    E. V. Bugaev, G. S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan, M. A. Rudzsky and Z. F. Seidov, Nucl. Phys. A324 (1979) 350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [29]
    Z. Maki et al., Prog. Theor. Phys. 28 (1962) 870;ADSCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  33. [29a]
    B. Pontecorvo, Zh. Eksp. Theor. Fis., 53 (1967) 1717;Google Scholar
  34. [29b]
    V. Gribov and B. Pontecorvo, Phys. Lett. B 28 (1969) 493.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [30]
    S. P. Mikheyev and A. Yu. Smirnov, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 42 (1985) 913;Google Scholar
  36. [30a]
    L. Wolfenstein, Phys. Rev. D17 (1978) 2369,ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. [30b]
    L. Wolfenstein, Phys. Rev. D20 (1979) 2634.ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. [31]
    W. A. Mann et al., Phys. Lett. B 291 (1992) 200.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [32]
    K. Gabathuler et al., Phys. Lett. B 138 (1984) 449.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [33]
    L. Borodovsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 68 (1992) 274.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [34]
    F. Dydak et al., Phys. Lett. B 134 (1984) 281.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [35]
    F. Bergsma et al., Phys. Lett. B 142 (1984) 103.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [36]
    R. Davis Jr. et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 20 (1968) 1205;ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. [36a]
    K. Lande, Proc. of the 25th Int’l Conference on High Energy Physics, Singapore, Aug. 1990, p667.Google Scholar
  45. [36]
    K. S. Hirata et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65 (1990) 1297;ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [36a]
    K. S. Hirata et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 65 (1990) 1301;ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. [36b]
    K. S. Hirata et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 66 (1991) 9;ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [36c]
    K. S. Hirata et al. , Phys. Rev. D. 44 (1991) 2241.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [37]
    A. I. Abazov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 67 (1991) 3332.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. [38]
    P. Anselmann et al. , Phys. Lett. B 285 (1992) 376;ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [38a]
    P. Anselmann et al. , Phys. Lett. B 285 (1992) 390.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [39]
    M. M. Boliev et al., in Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Neutrino Telescopes, ed. M. Baldo Ceolin, Venezia, Feb. 26–28, 1991, p235.Google Scholar
  53. [40]
    R. Becker-Szendy et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 69 (1992) 1010.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. [41]
    Y. Oyama et al. , Phys. Rev. D 39 (1989) 1481; M. Mori, KEK Preprint 92–24, To appear in the Proceedings of the Workshop on High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics, Honolulu, March 23–26, 1992.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [42]
    A. V. Butkevich, L. G. Dedenko and I. M. Zheleznykh, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 50 (1989) 90.Google Scholar
  56. [43]
    T. K. Gaisser, talk presented at the International Symposium on Neutrino Astrophysics, Takayama, Japan, Oct. 1992, to appear in the Proceedings: W. Frati, T. K. Gaisser, A. K. Mann and Todor Stanev, Preprint BA 92–71, UPR-0218E.Google Scholar
  57. [44]
    V. Agrawal, T. K. Gaisser, P. Lipari and T. Stanev, draft in preparation for publication.Google Scholar
  58. [45]
    J. F. Owens, Phys. Lett. B 266 (1991) 126.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. [46]
    D. S. Ayres (Soudan 2 collaboration), Proceedings of the Last Workshop on Grand Unification, North Carolina, USA, April 1989, p28.Google Scholar
  60. [47]
    P. Litchfield, for The Soudan 2 collaboration, in Proc. of the International Workshop on v μ/v e Problem in Atmospheric Neutrinos, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy, March, 1993, p 114.Google Scholar
  61. [48]
    M. Koshiba, Proceedings of Workshop on Grand Unified Theories and Cosmology, KEK, Japan, December 1983, P24;Google Scholar
  62. [48a]
    Y. Totsuka, Proceedings of the Seventh Workshop on Grand Unification / ICOBAN’86, April 1986, Toyama, Japan, P78;Google Scholar
  63. [48b]
    A. Suzuki, Proceedings of the Workshop on Elementary Particle Picture of the Universe, KEK, Japan, February 1987, P136;Google Scholar
  64. [48b]
    T. Kajita, Proceedings of the third Workshop on Elementary-Particle Picture of the Universe, Fuji-yoshida, Japan, October 1988, pl63, ICR-Report-185–89–2.Google Scholar
  65. [50]
    Fermilab Letter of Intent P822, “A Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment Using Soudan 2”, Aug. 1990, proposal submitted March 1991 by the Soudan collaboration.Google Scholar
  66. [51]
    K. Nishikawa, Preprint INS-Rep. -924, April 1992.Google Scholar
  67. [52]
    Proceedings of the workshop on Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation, Nov. 1991, Fermilab, USA.Google Scholar
  68. [53]
    S. Parke, talk presented at the Moriond Workshop on Neutrino Physics, Jan. 1993, Villars, Switzerland, Fermilab-Conf-93/056-T (April 1993).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takaaki Kajita
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Cosmic Ray ResearchUniversity of TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations