Advertisement

Neutrino Oscillations in Emulsion Experiment

  • Kimio Niwa

Abstract

Emulsion experiments have a long history. Becquerel discovered radioactivity of uranium in 1896 following the discovery of Roentgen Rays [1]. He observed some activity of Uranium on a photographic emulsion penetrating through several sheets of black papers. Kinoshita then showed in 1910 [2] that α-particles produce a blackening of photographic emulsion so that individual α-tracks could be recognized. An attempt to improve the sensitivity of emulsions by doubling the concentration of AgBr was made by Bloch (Ilford, Ltd.) and Powell, in 1939 [3]. This effort was eventually rewarded by the discovery of “two mesons” in 1947. The first electron-sensitive emulsion (Kodak NT4) was produced by Berriman (1949) [4]. The improvement was made not only in the sensitivity of the emulsion, but also in the increased thickness. An emulsion up to 2 mm thick was successfully processed. We note a number of important discoveries made for new particle physics in cosmic rays in the 1940–1950’s using emulsions [5].

Keywords

Neutrino Oscillation Primary Vertex Fiber Tracker Drift Chamber Neutrino Interaction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Becquerer; Comptes Rendus 122, pps. 420, 501 and 1086 (1896)Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Kinoshita , Proc. Roy. Soc. (A) 83 (1910) 432.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Powell and Fertel ; Nature 144, 115 (1939)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Berriman , Photo. J. 89B (1949) 121.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    C. F. Powell, P. H. Fowler and D. H. Perkins, “The study of Elementary Particles by the Photographic Method”, Pergamon Press, 1959.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    K. Niu et al., Prog. Theor. Phys. 46 (1971) 1644.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    K. Hoshino, Ph. D. thesis, Nagoya University, (1989).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    S. I. Brikkev et al., Suppl. Nuovo Cim., 2 (1958) 733;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [8a]
    N. B. Mistry et al., Nuovo Ci., 17 (1960) 429;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [8b]
    P. K. F. Gieder et al.,m Suppl. Nuovo Ci. , 26 (1962) 271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [9]
    E. H. S. Burhop et al., Phys. Lett. 65B (1976) 299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [10]
    K. Niwa, K. Hoshino and K. Niu, Proc. int. Cosmic ray sympo. on High energy Phenomena (Cosmic ray Lab. , Univ. Tokyo, 1974) p. 149.Google Scholar
  13. [10a]
    K. Niwa, S. Kaneko, M. Abe and K. Kurasawa, Technical report of television society, Vol. 5 (Jan. 1982) No. 31 p.7.Google Scholar
  14. [11]
    N. Ushida et al, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A224(1984) 50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [12]
    S. Aoki et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A274 (1988) 64.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [13]
    K. Kodama, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A289 (1990) 146.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [14]
    S. Aoki, K. Hoshino, M. Nakamura, K. Niu, K. Niwa and N. Torii, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B51 (1990) 466.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [15]
    N. Ushida et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol. 47 No. 24 (1981) 1694.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [16]
    N. Ushida et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol. 57 No. 23 (1986) 2897.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [17]
    H. Harari, Phys. Lett. 6B (1989) 413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [18]
    CERN SPSC/90–42 SPSC P254 15 Dec 1990.Google Scholar
  22. [19]
    T. Nakano, et al., IEEE transactions on nuclear science Vol. 39, No. 4 (1992) 680.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kimio Niwa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsNagoya UniversityJapan

Personalised recommendations