Advertisement

Particle Acceleration Mechanisms in Astrophysics

  • Fumio Takahara

Abstract

The origin and acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays have been one of the most important problems in astrophysics. Recently, they have also received much attention in connection with the advent of observations of high-energy 7-rays and neutrinos from astronomical objects. During the past few years two distinct views have been extensively discussed. One is the direct acceleration mechanisms due to an electric field around rotating neutron stars; the other comprises statistical acceleration mechanisms, called Fermi acceleration, which work in a turbulent interstellar medium and astrophysical shocks.

Keywords

Neutron Star Shock Front Accretion Disk Magnetic Field Line Radio Galaxy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    J.P. Ostriker, J.E. Gunn: Astrophys. J 157, 1395 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    P. Goldreich, W.H. Julian: Astrophys.J 157, 869 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    D. Eichler, W.T. Vestrand: Nature 307, 613 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    T. Nakamura, Y. Yamada, H. Sato: Prog.Theor.Phys. 87, 1065 (1987).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    J. Matthews: In Proc. Internat. Symp. “Astrophysical Aspects of the Most Energetic Cosmic Rays”, Kofu (1991, World Scientific) p. 162.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    R.V.E. Lovelace: Nature 262, 649 (1976).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    G. Chanmugan, K. Brecher: Nature 313, 767 (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    C.F. Kennel, F.V. Coroniti: Astrophys.J. 283, 694 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    G.F. Krymskii: Sov.Phys.-Dokl. 23, 327 (1977).ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    W.I. Axford, E. Leer, G. Skadron: In Proc. 15th Internat. Cosmic Ray Conf., Plovdiv, 11, 132 (1977).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    A.R. Bell: Mon.Not.R.Astron.Soc. 182, 147 (1978).ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    R.D. Blandford, J.P. Ostriker: Astrophys.J.Lett. 221, L29 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    T. Terasawa, M. Sholer: Science 244, 1050 (1989).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    R. Blandford, D. Eichler: Phys.Rep. 154, 1 (1987).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    F.C. Jones, D.C. Ellison: Spa.Sci.Rev. 58, 259 (1991).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    P.O. Lagage, C.J. Cesarski: Astron.Astrophys. 125, 249 (1983).ADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    J.R. Jokipii, G.E. Morfill: Astrophys.J. 312, 170 (1987).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    F. Takahara: Prog.Theor.Phys. 83, 1071L (1990).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    W.H. Ip, W.I. Axford: In Proc. Internat. Symp. “Astrophysical Aspects of the Most Energetic Cosmic Rays”, Kofu (1991, World Scientific) p.273.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    P.L. Biermann, P.A. Strittmatter: Astrophys.J. 322, 643 (1987).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    D. Kazanas, D.C. Ellison: Nature 319, 380 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    J.G. Kirk, P. Schneider: Astron.Astrophys. 201, 177 (1988).ADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    T.K. Gaisser, A.K. Harding, T. Stanev: Astrophys.J. 345, 423 (1989).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    L.O’C. Drury: Rep.Prog.Phys 46, 973 (1983).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    T. Hara et al.: Proc. 17th Internat. Cosmic Ray Conf., Bangalore, 9, 198 (1981).Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    J.E. Gunn, J.P. Ostriker: Astrophys.J. 165, 523 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    K.O. Thielheim: Fund.Cos.Phys. 13, 357 (1989).ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    H. Laue, K.O. Thielheim: Astrophys.J.Suppl. 61, 465 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    C. Max: Phys.Fluids 16, 1277 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    M.J. Rees, J.E. Gunn: Mon.Not.R.Astron.Soc. 167, 1 (1974).ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    F.C. Michel: Rev.Mod.Phys. 54, 1 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    M.A. Ruderman and RG. Sutherland: Astrophys.J. 196, 51 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    W.H. Sorrell: Astrophys.J. 323, 647 (1987).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    P. Ghosh, F.K. Lamb: Astrophys.J. 234, 296 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    J.I. Katz, I.A. Smith: Astrophys.J. 326, 733 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    K.S. Cheng, M. Ruderman: Astrophys.J.Lett. 337, L77 (1989).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    D. Kazanas, D.C. Ellison: Astrophys.J. 304, 178 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    P. Kiraly, P. Meszaros: Astrophys.J 333, 719 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    A. Mitra: Astrophys.J 370, 345 (1991).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    E. Fermi: Phys.Rev. 75, 1169 (1949).ADSCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    E. Fermi: Astrophys.J. 119, 1 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    D.B. Melrose: Plasma Astrophysics Vol.2 (1980, Gordon and Breach).Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    W.I. Axford: In Proc. Internat. Symp. “Astrophysical Aspects of the Most Energetic Cosmic Rays”, Kofu (1991, World Scientific) p.406.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    F.C. Jones: Astrophys.J. 361, 162 (1990).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    M. Ostrowski: Mon.Not.R.Astron.Soc. 233, 257 (1988).ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    J.R. Jokipii: Astrophys.J. 313, 842 (1987).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. [47]
    R.B. Decker: Spa.Sci.Rev. 48, 195 (1988).ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    F. Takahara, T. Terasawa: In Proc. Internat. Symp. “Astrophysical Aspects of the Most Energetic Cosmic Rays”, Kofu (1991, World Scientific) p.291.Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    M. Ostrowski: Mon.Not.R.Astron.Soc. 249, 551 (1991).ADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    J.G. Kirk, A.F. Heavens: Mon.Not.R.Astron.Soc. 239, 995 (1989).ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    M.C. Begelman, R.D. Blandford and M.J. Rees: Rev.Mod.Phys. 56, 255 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    J.G. Kirk, P. Schneider: Astrophys.J. 315, 425 (1987).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    J.G. Kirk, P. Schneider: Astrophys.J. 322, 256 (1987).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    J.J. Quenby, R. Lieu: Nature 342, 654 (1989).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    D.C. Ellison, F.C. Jones, S.P. Reynolds: Astrophys.J. 360, 702 (1990).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    G.F. Krymskii, S.I. Petkhov: Sov.Astron.Lett. 6, 124 (1980).ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    V.L. Prishchep, V.S. Ptuskin: Sov.Astron. 25, 446 (1981).ADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    F. Takahara: In Proc. “Joint Varenna-Abastumani Internat.School and Workshop on Plasma Astrophysics”, Sukhumi 1986, ESA SP-251, p.253.Google Scholar
  59. [59]
    D. Eichler: Astrophys.J. 229, 419 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. [60]
    D.C. Ellison: In Proc. Internat. Symp. “Astrophysical Aspects of the Most Energetic Cosmic Rays”, Kofu (1991, World Scientific) p.281.Google Scholar
  61. [61]
    A.M. Hillas: Ann.Rev.Astron.Astrophys. 22, 425 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. [62]
    K. Mannheim, P.L. Biermann: Astron.Astrophys. 221, 211 (1989).ADSGoogle Scholar
  63. [63]
    F.W. Stecker et al.: Phys.Rev.Lett. 66, 2697 (1991).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fumio Takahara
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsTokyo Metropolitan UniversityJapan

Personalised recommendations