Extended Left and Caudal Lobectomy with Removal of Tumor Thrombus Extending into the Right Atrium for Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Total Hepatic Vascular Exclusion Using Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with extension into the right atrium has been regarded as beyond the realm of surgical resection. Most patients have died within a few months of pulmonary embolism, heart failure, or cancer progression.
KeywordsInferior Vena Cava Cystic Duct Superior Vena Cava Tumor Thrombus Middle Hepatic Vein
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