The Pattern and Process of Asian Economic Development

  • Shinichi Ichimura


In Section 1.3.2 of Chapter 1, the countries and areas in East Asia were classified:
  1. 1)

    Industrial Economy: Japan: resource-poor

  2. 2)

    NTEs: Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea: resource-poor

  3. 3)

    ASEAN-4: Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia: resource-rich

  4. 4)

    Socialist Economies: Vietnam, Laos, Kampuchea, Myanmar: resource-poor

  5. 5)

    Giant China: mixed



Asian Country Direct Investment East Asian Country Asian Development South Asian Country 
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  1. 2.
    As for ICOR’s in some other countries, India lias an extremely high ICOR despite its low income level, implying its inefficient use of capital. ICOR values in Latin America are very high also, except for Columbia. They range approximately between 4 and 10. See Ichimura’s chapter in the book quoted in footnote 1.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    There is an enormous difference in income inequality between Asia and Latin America. Nevertheless, one cannot escape from the conclusion that Asian societies are much more egalitarian than Latin American societies. See Ichimura’s Chapter in Challenge of Asian Developing Countries, 1988; World Development Reports in later years.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    See Ichimura’s Cliapter in Challenge of Asian Developing Countries and K. Kojima’s book in References.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    This rescued the Indonesian government from the serious budget deficit then, because the revenue of Indonesian budget from the sharing part of oil production came in dollars, so that the Rupiah value of revenue proportionally increased.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    This is what the author said in 1986 in his Chapter. Despite the worries of some economists, however, the East Asian governments kept the same growth-drives to maintain too ambitious growth patii, which brought about the collapse in 1997.Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    Oil price has declined and moved up and down from 37.3 $ per barrel in 81 to 34.4, 30.8, 29.4, 28.1 (85), 16.4, 17.8, 15.6, 16.7, 22.3 (90), 20.4, 19.4, 17.7, 16.5, 18.4(95).Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    The dollar/Yen rate changed from 226.7 Yen per US$ in 1980 to 238.5 (85), 168.5, 144.6, 128.2, 138.0, 144.8 (90), 134.7, 126.7, 111,.2, 102.2, 94.1 (95), 108.8 (96), and 129.5 (Dec, 97).Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    This was the prediction that the author gave around 1987, but the development plans of many East Asian governments and the private enterprises were much too ambitious.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shinichi Ichimura
    • 1
  1. 1.International Center for the Study of East Asian DevelopmentKokurakita, Kitakyushu, FukuokaJapan

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