In congenital heart anomalies, a shunt may occur at various levels depending on the intracardiac structures; this results in specific and characteristic hemodynamics. In this section, the intracardiac flow dynamics is assessed in representative cardiac anomalies—atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD); and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Additionally, the blood flow pattern of the inter-atrial communication in patients with complete transposition of the great arteries is described in Sect. 10.5.


Patent Ductus Arteriosus Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Pulmonary Valve 
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© Springer Japan 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gengi Satomi

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