Advertisement

Positioning of Cells at their Intrinsic Sites in Multicellular Organisms

  • Hisao Honda

Summary

Certain types of cell are known to be under bilateral threshold control, e.g., cells receiving a signal of ligands do not respond until the ligand level comes close to a threshold. When the ligand level is around the threshold, the cells adhere to a surface that expresses the ligands, and again do not respond when the ligand level is over the threshold. The bilateral threshold control of membrane-bound ligands (ephrin) and their receptor (Eph) seems to govern positioning of cells at their intrinsic sites. Three examples are shown: (1) In the topographic projection of retinal ganglion axons to the midbrain, the axon terminals expressing Eph receptors crawl on the midbrain surface where the ligand density is graded. The axon terminals find their own sites on the midbrain where the ligand level is at their own threshold. (2) The bilateral threshold control does not only direct positioning of individual cells, but, under assumptions that the cells express ligands and receptors simultaneously in a single cell and the densities of the ligands and the receptors are reciprocal with each other, the bilateral threshold control organizes spontaneously a tissue of graded cell arrangement, which could provide positional information for morphogenesis and regeneration. (3) In a cell aggregate of two types of cells, cells co-expressing ligands and receptors (not necessarily reciprocally) can form curious cell patterns, a checkerboard pattern and a kagome (star) pattern that have been observed on the chick oviduct epithelium.

Keywords

Cell Pattern Cell Position Checkerboard Pattern Ligand Density Retinal Axon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Chenand H. J., Nakamoto, M., Bergemann, A. D. and Flanagan, J. G. (1995). Complementary gradients in expression and binding of ELF-1 and Mek4 in development of the topographic retinotectal projection map. Cell 82: 371–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Drescher, U., Kremoser, C., Handwerker, C., Löschinger, J., Noda, M. and Bonhoeffer, F. (1995). In vitro guidance of retinal ganglion cell axons by RAGS, a 25 kDa tectal protein related to ligands for Eph receptor tyrosine kinases. Cell 82, 359–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gale, N. W., Holland, S. J., Valenzuela, D. M., Flenniken, A., Pan, L., Ryan, T. E., Henkemeyer, M., Strebhardt, K., Hirai, H., Wilkinson, D G, Pawson, T., Davis, S. and Yancopoulos, G. D. (1996). Eph receptors and ligands comprise two major specificity subclasses and are reciprocally compartmentalized during embryogenesis. Neuron 17: 9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Honda, H. (1998). Topographic mapping in the retinotectal projection by means of complementary ligand and receptor gradients: a computer simulation study. J. Theor. Biol. 192: 235–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Honda, H., Yamanaka, H. and Eguchi, G. (1986). Transformation of a polygonal cellular pattern during sexual maturation of the avian oviduct epithelium. J. Ernbr. Expl. Morph. 98: 1–19Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Honda, H., Mochizuki, A. (2002). Formation and maintenance of distinctive cell patterns by co-expression of membrane-bound ligands and their receptors. Devel. Dynamics 223: 180–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huynh-Do, U., Stein, E., Lane, A. A., Liu, H., Cerretti, D. P. and Daniel, T. 0. (1999). Surface densities of ephrin-B1 determine EphBl-coupled activation of cell attachment through a.and3 and a5bi integrins. EMBO J. 18: 2165–2173Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mittenthal, J. E. and Mazo, R. M. (1983). A model for shape generation by strain and cell-cell adhesion in the epithelium of an arthropod leg segment. J. Theor. Biol. 100: 443–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Steinberg, M. S. (1962). Mechanism of tissue recognition by dissociated cells H: Time-course of events. Science 137: 762–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wada, N., Kimura, I., Tanaka, H., Ide, H. and Nohno, T. (1998). Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell surface proteins regulate position-specific cell affinity in the limb bud. Dee. Biol. 202: 244–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yamanaka, H. I. (1990). Pattern formation in the epithelium of the oviduct of Japanese quail. Intern J. Dev. Biol. 34; 385–390MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yamanaka, H. I. and Honda, H. (1990). A checkerboard pattern manifested by the oviduct epithelium of the Japanese quail. Intern J. Dev. Biol. 34: 377–383Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hisao Honda
    • 1
  1. 1.Hyogo UniversityKakogawa, HyogoJapan

Personalised recommendations