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Bioprobes pp 67-96 | Cite as

Apoptosis

  • Masaya Imoto

Abstract

Apoptosis is a morphologically distinct form of programmed cell death that plays a major role during development, homeostasis, and in many diseases including cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and neurodegenerative disorders. Apoptosis can be triggered by a variety of stimuli including viral infection [1,2], growth factor withdrawal [3–8], and DNA damage resulting from radiation [9–11] and chemotherapeutic drugs [12]. The hallmark signs of apoptosis include chromatin condensation, internucleosomal cleavage of DNA, cell shrinkage and the formation of apoptotic bodies, which are ultimately engulfed by phagocytic cells. Apoptosis occurs through the activation of a cell-intrinsic suicide program. The basic machinery to carry out apoptosis appears to be present in essentially all mammalian cells at all times, but the activation of the suicide program is regulated by many different signals that originate from both the intracellular and the extracellular milieu. A study of the molecular events underlying apoptotic intracellular signalling pathways has, in recent years, resulted in the identification of a large number of molecules that are involved either in promoting or in suppressing the apoptotic response.

Keywords

Mutant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Okadaic Acid Ceramide Synthesis Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cell A431 Human Epidermoid Carcinoma Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer-Verlag Tokyo 2000

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  • Masaya Imoto

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