Sandwich Electrodes and Their Possible Application in Organic Electrosynthesis Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy

  • Andrzej Kowal
  • Joanna Kowal
  • Karl Doblhofer
Conference paper


The concept of sandwich electrodes and their application in organic electrosynthesis will be discussed. Sandwich electrode (SE) (see e.g. [1]) consists of at least 3 layers: flat current collector, thin catalyst layer and special organic membrane.


Atomic Force Microscopy Glassy Carbon Organic Anion Current Collector Electrocatalytic Oxidation 
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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrzej Kowal
    • 1
  • Joanna Kowal
    • 2
  • Karl Doblhofer
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Catalysis and Surface ChemistryPolish Academy of ScienceKrakówPoland
  2. 2.Faculty of ChemistryJagiellonnian UniversityKrakówPoland
  3. 3.Fritz-Haber-Institute of the Max-Planck-SocietyBerlin-DahlemGermany

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