Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms of the Eel
All vertebrates and invertebrates have mechanisms to defend themselves from diseases. Acquired immunity, that is, immunity in the narrow sense, based on antibody production by B lymphocytes, is also included in this category. The immune system is highly sophisticated with its strict specificity against pathogens and longlasting memory for the antigen. However, acquired immunity is functional only in vertebrates and well developed only in higher vertebrates such as birds and mammals. Thus, the system is primitive in fish, which are lower vertebrates. Innate immunity, or in other words nonspecific defense mechanisms without memory, thus has much greater importance in fish, and this is more apparent in the early ontogenetic stages, that is, the embryos and larvae.
KeywordsRainbow Trout Skin Mucus Club Cell Nonspecific Defense Mechanism Secretory Vacuole
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