In 1991, Wallner et al.  and Morimoto et al.  first reported MR cholangiography using a steady-state free procession (SSFP) gradient echo sequence. However, the sequence required long period of breath holding, and the spatial resolution was inadequate to allow satisfactory imaging of the pancreatic duct. The reason was that the gradient echo sequence was susceptible to magnetic field inhomogeneity and motions such as gastrointestinal peristalsis, pulsation of the aorta, and abdominal wall movement.
KeywordsPancreatic Duct Maximum Intensity Projection Ferric Ammonium Citrate MRCP Image Respiratory Motion Artifact
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