Advertisement

Vitamin K Deficiency and Breast-Feeding

  • Rüdiger von Kries
Conference paper

Abstract

A dietary component which is essential for hemostasis was detected some fifty years ago and was called vitamin K. The clinical relevance of this vitamin in pediatrics was studied during this period [1]. Classical hemorrhagic disease of the newborn characteristically presents with gastrointestinal, nasal, skin and circumcision bleeding during the first 7 days of life [2,3]. For many years vitamin K deficiency bleeding beyond the neonatal period appeared to be related to malabsorption and cholestasis syndromes, such as celiac disease [2], bile duct atresia, [4] and cystic fibrosis [5] only. Bleeding in these cases may be observed at any time during the course of the underlying disease unless sufficient vitamin K supplements are given [6]. An early infantile hemorrhagic syndrome due to vitamin K deficiency, was not recognized until 1970 [7,8]. This hemorrhagic syndrome is characterized by intracranial hemorrhage which accounts for more than 50% of cases and is observed mainly in the fourth to sixth week of life [2,3].

Keywords

Celiac Disease Human Milk Infant Formula Milk Intake Hemorrhagic Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Dam H, Dyggve H, Larsen H, Plum P (1952) The relation of vitamin K deficiency to hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. Adv Pediatr 5: 129–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Von Kries R, Shearer MJ, Göbel U (1988) Vitamin K in infancy. Eur J Pediatr 147: 106–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lane PA, Hathaway WE (1985) Vitamin K in infancy. J Pediatr 106: 351–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fujimura Y, Mimura Y, Kinoshita S, Yoshioka A, Kitawaki T, Yoshioka K, Takamiya O (1982) Studies on vitamin K-dependent factor deficiency during early childhood with special reference to prothrombin activity and antigen level. Haemostasis 11: 90–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Torstensen OL, Humphrey GB, Edson JR, Warwick WJ (1970) Cystic fibrosis presenting with severe hemorrhage due to vitamin K malabsorption: a report of 3 cases. Pediatrics 45: 857–861Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition (1971) Vitamin K supplementation for infants receiving milk substitute infant formulas and for those with fat malabsorption. Pediatrics 48: 483–487Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bhanchet P, Tuchinda S, Hathirat P, Visudhiphan P, Bhamaraphavati N, Bukkavesa S (1977) A bleeding syndrome in infants due to acquired prothrombin complex deficiency. Clin Pediatr 16: 992–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nammacher MA, Willemin M, Hartmann JR, Gaston LW (1970) Vitamin K deficiency in infants beyond the neonatal period. J Pediatr 76: 549–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dam H, Glavind J, Larsen EH, Plum P (1942) Investigations into the cause of the physiological hypoprothrombinemia in newborn children. IV. The vitamin K content of woman’s milk and cow’s milk. Acta Med Scand 112: 210–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Keenan WJ, Jewett T, Glueck HI (1971) Role of feeding and vitamin K in hypoprothrombinemia of the newborn. Am J DIS Child 121: 271–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Salomonsen L (1940) On the prevention of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn by the administration of cow’s milk during the first two days of life. Acta Pediat 28: 1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sutherland JM, Glueck HI, Gleser G (1967) Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn: breast-feeding as a necessary factor in the pathogenesis. Am J Dis Child 113: 524–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Göbel U, Von Kries R, Bewersdorff S, Henninghausen B, Schmidt E (1986) Erniedrigte Pro thrombin-Gerinnungsaktivitäten bei gestillten Kindern? Klin Padiatr 198: 13–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Von Kries R, Reifenhäuser A, Göbel U, McCarthy PT, Shearer MJ, Barkhan P (1985) Late onset haemorrhagic disease of newborn with temporary malabsorption of vitamin Ki (letter). Lancet I: 1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Von Kries R, Maase B, Becker A, Göbel U (1985) Latent vitamin K deficiency in healthy infants (letter). Lancet II: 1421–1422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Von Kries R, Tangermann R, Shearer MJ, Göbel U (1987) Vitamin K deficiency in breast-fed infants. In: Goldman AS, Atkinson SA, Hanson LA (eds) Human Lactation 3. The effects of human milk on the recipient infant. Plenum, New York, pp 317–324Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Matsuda I, Nishiyama S, Motohara K, Endo P, Ogata T, Futagoishi Y (1989) Late neonatal vitamin K deficiency associated with subclinical liver dysfunction in human milkfed infants. J. Pediatr 114: 602–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Motohara K, Matsukura M, Matsuda I, Iribe K, Ikeda T, Kondo Y, Yonekubo A, Yamamoto Y, Tsuchiya F (1984) Severe vitamin K deficiency in breastfed infants. J Pediatr 105: 943–945PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Motohara K, Endo, F, Matsuda I (1987) Screening for late neonatal vitamin K deficiency by acarboxy prothrombin in dried blood spots. Arch Dis Child 62: 370–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Haroon Y, Shearer MJ, Rahim S, Gunn WG, McEnery G, Barkhan P (1982) The content of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in human milk, cow’s milk and infant formula foods determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Nutr 112: 1105–1117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Canfield LM, Hopkinson JM (1989) State of the art vitamin K in human milk. J Ped Gastroenterol Nutr 8: 430–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Harzer G, Haug M (1984) Abhängigkeit der Frauenmilchiipide von der Dauer der Stillperiode, der Tageszeit, dem Stillvorgang und der mütterlichen Ernährung. Z Ernährungswiss 23: 113–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Von Kries R, Shearer M, McCarthy PT, Haug M, Harzer G, Göbel U (1987) Vitamin K1 content of maternal milk: influence of the stage of lactation, lipid composition, and vitamin K1 supplements given to the mother. Pediatr Res 22: 513–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sawada K, Hanawa Y (1988) Vitamin K1 content of human milk various maternal nutritional states. In: Berger H (ed) Vitamins and minerals in pregnancy and lactation. Nestle nutrition workshop series, vol. 16 Nested, Vevey/Raven Press, New York, pp 389Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition (1976) Commentary on breast-feeding and infant formulas, including proposed standards for formulas. Pediatrics 57: 278–285Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shearer MJ, Rahim S, Barkhan P, Stimmler L (1982) Plasma vitamin K1 in mothers and their newborn babies. Lancet II: 460–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    McCarthy PT, Shearer MJ, Gau G, Crampton OE, Barkhan(1986) Vitamin K content of human liver at different ages (abstract). Haemostasis 16: 83–84Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rosegger H, Pürstner P (1985) Zufütterung von volladaptierter Kunstmilch oder kalorienlosem Tee in den ersten Lebenstagen. Wien Klin Wochenschr 97: 411–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Von Kries R, Göbel U, Maase B (1985) Vitamin K deficiency in the newborn (letter). Lancet II: 728–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Von Kries R, Becker A, Göbel U (1987) Vitamin K in the newborn: influence of nutritional factors on acarboxy-prothrombin detectability and factor II and VII clotting activity. Eur J Pediatr 146: 123–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Motohara K, Matsukane I, Endo F, Kiyota Y, Matsuda I (1989) Relationship of vitamin K intake and vitamin K supplementation to vitamin K status in newborns. Pediatr 84: 90–94Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Göbel U, Sonnenschein-Kosenow S, Petrich C, Von Voss H (1977) Vitamin K deficiency in the newborn (letter). Lancet II: 187–188Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    McNinch AW, L’Orme R, Tripp JH (1983) Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn returns. Lancet I: 1089–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lambert WE, De Leenheer AP, Tassaneeyakul W, Widdershoven J (1987) Study of vitamin K in the newborn by HPLC with wet-chemical post-column reduction and fluorescence detection. In: Suttie JW (ed) Current advances in vitamin K research. Elsevier, New York, pp 437–452Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Widdershoven J, Kollee L, van Munster P, Bosman AM, Monnens L (1986) Biochemical vitamin K deficiency in early infancy: diagnostic limitation of conventional coagulation tests. Helv Paediatr Acta 41: 195–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Widdershoven J, Motohara K, Endo F, Matsuda I, Monnens L (1986) Influence of the type of feeding on the presence of PIVKA-II in infants. Helv Paediatr Acta 41: 25–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Motohara K, Kuroki Y, Kan H, Endo F, Matsuda I (1985) Detection of vitamin K deficiency by the use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for circulating abnormal prothrombin. Pediatr Res 19: 354–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Von Kries R, Göbel U, Shearer MS, McCarthey PT (1985) Vitamin K deficiency in breast-fed infants (letter). J Pediatr 650–651Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Isarangkura PB, Mahadandana C, Panstienkul B, Nakayama K, Tsukimoto I, Yamamoto Y, Yonekubo A (1983) Vitaman K level in maternal breast milk of infants with acquired prothrombin complex deficiency. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 14: 275–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hanawa Y, Maki M, Murata B, Matsuyama E, Yamamoto Y, Nagao T, Yamada K (1988) The second nationwide survey in Japan of vitamin K deficiency in infancy. Eur J Pediatr 147: 472–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shearer MJ, McBurney A, Barkhan P (1974) Studies on the absorption and metabolism of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in man. Vitam Horm 32: 513–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rüdiger von Kries
    • 1
  1. 1.Abt. für NeonatologieUniversitäts-KinderklinikDüsseldorf 1Federal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations