Corporate Systems

  • Ifo Institute for Economic Research
  • Sakura Institute of Research


The composition of Japanese corporations shows that middle-ranked firms and small-to medium-sized enterprises with capital of less than one billion yen are predominant in terms of number (Fig. 13.1-1). Most of these smaller companies have developed niche markets and have been operating within the framework of divisions of labour, acting as subcontractors or affiliates under the umbrella of major corporations. Small- to medium-sized enterprises thus occupy an important position in Japan’s industrial system. However, judging from the fact that 30% to 50% of the total performance (sales, current profits, etc.) is by corporations with capital of over ¥1 billion, the core of the structure is clearly made up of those large corporations.


Corporate Governance Financial Institution Industrial Relation Supervisory Board Work Council 
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Literature to 13.2

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© Springer Japan 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ifo Institute for Economic Research
  • Sakura Institute of Research

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