Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Natural History

  • Cameron B. BartonEmail author
  • Stuart L. Weinstein


Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), or late-onset scoliosis, is a condition in adolescents defined by an abnormal coronal plane spine curvature with rotation, for which no cause can be established. The natural history of both adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and other forms of scoliosis (i.e., due to neuromuscular or syndromic disorders) has been studied over the past 50 years. However, studies isolating patients with AIS have been relatively few in number. Understanding the natural history of this condition, including characteristics of the disease process and long-term outcomes, is crucial for effective treatment and patient education. This chapter discusses the etiopathogenesis, prevalence, diagnosis and classification, and outcomes in untreated individuals with AIS. Specifically, outcome measures such as back pain and disability, pulmonary function, mortality, psychosocial effects, and the effect of AIS on pregnancy are outlined and analyzed.


Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis Late-onset scoliosis Natural history Spine Outcomes 


  1. 1.
    Kane WJ. Scoliosis prevalence: a call for a statement of terms. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1977;126:43–6.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ascani E, Bartolozzi P, Logroscino CA, Marchetti PG, Ponte A, Savini R, et al. Natural history of untreated idiopathic scoliosis after skeletal maturity. Spine. 1986;11:784–9. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cheng JC, Castelein RM, Chu WC, Danielsson AJ, Dobbs MB, Grivas TB, et al. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Nat Rev Dis Prim. 2015;1:15030. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Collis DK, Ponseti IV. Long-term follow-up of patients with idiopathic scoliosis not treated surgically. J bone Joint Surg Am. 1969;51(3):425–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fowles JV, Drummond DS, L’Ecuyer S, Roy L, Kassab MT. Untreated scoliosis in the adult. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1978;134:212–7.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goldberg MS, Mayo NE, Poitras B, Scott S, Hanley J. The Ste-Justine Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Cohort Study. Part II: perception of health, self and body image, and participation in physical activities. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 1994;19(14):1562–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mayo NE, Goldberg MS, Poitras B, Scott S, Hanley J. The Ste-Justine adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cohort study. Part III: back pain. Spine. 1994;19:1573–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pehrsson K, Bake B, Larsson S, Nachemson A. Lung function in adult idiopathic scoliosis: a 20 year follow up. Thorax. 1991;46(7):474–8. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pehrsson K, Larsson S, Oden A, Nachemson A. Long-term follow-up of patients with untreated scoliosis. A study of mortality, causes of death, and symptoms. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 1992;17(9):1091–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ponseti I, Friedman B. Prognosis in idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1950;32:381–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Weinstein SL, Zavala DC, Ponseti IV. Idiopathic scoliosis: long-term follow-up and prognosis in untreated patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1981;63(5):702–12. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Weinstein SL, Ponseti IV. Curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1983;65(4):447–55. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lowe TG, Edgar M, Margulies JY, Miller NH, Raso VJ, Reinker KA, et al. Etiology of idiopathic scoliosis: current trends in research. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2000;82A(8):1157–68. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Burwell RG. Aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis: current concepts. Pediatr Rehabil. 2003;6:137–70. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang WJ, Yeung HY, Chu WC-W, Tang NL-S, Lee KM, Qiu Y, et al. Top theories for the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop. 2011;31(1 Suppl):S14–27. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Burwell RG, Dangerfield PH, Moulton A, Grivas TB, Cheng JC. Whither the etiopathogenesis (and scoliogeny) of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? Incorporating presentations on scoliogeny at the 2012 IRSSD and SRS meetings. Scoliosis. 2013;8(1):4. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Veldhuizen G, Wever DJ, Webb PJ. The aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis: biomechanical and neuromuscular factors. Eur Spine J. 2000;9(3):178–84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wong C. Mechanism of right thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis at risk for progression; a unifying pathway of development by normal growth and imbalance. Scoliosis. 2015;10(1):2. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stokes IA, Spence H, Aronsson DD, Kilmer N. Mechanical modulation of vertebral body growth. Implications for scoliosis progression. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 1996;21(10):1162–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chu WCW, Man GCW, Lam WWM, Yeung BHY, Chau WW, Ng BKW, et al. Morphological and functional electrophysiological evidence of relative spinal cord tethering in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33(6):673–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Porter RW. The pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis: Uncoupled neuro-osseous growth? European Spine Journal. 2001;10:473–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sevastik J, Burwell RG, Dangerfield PH. A new concept for the etiopathogenesis of the thoracospinal deformity of idiopathic scoliosis: summary of an electronic focus group debate of the IBSE. Eur Spine J. 2003;12:440–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Azeddine B, Letellier K, Wang DS, Moldovan F, Moreau A. Molecular determinants of melatonin signaling dysfunction in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;462(462):45–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moreau A, Wang DS, Forget S, Azeddine B, Angeloni D, Fraschini F, et al. Melatonin signaling dysfunction in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29(16):1772–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lowe TG, Burwell RG, Dangerfield PH. Platelet calmodulin levels in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS): can they predict curve progression and severity? Summary of an electronic focus group debate of the IBSE. Eur Spine J. 2004;13:257–65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Castelein RM, Van Die’n JH, Smit TH. The role of dorsal shear forces in the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis – a hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2005;65(3):501–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kesling KL, Reinker KA. Scoliosis in twins. A meta-analysis of the literature and report of six cases. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 1997;22(17):2009–14. discussion 2015. Scholar
  28. 28.
    Axenovich TI, Zaidman AM, Zorkoltseva IV, Tregubova IL, Borodin PM. Segregation analysis of idiopathic scoliosis: demonstration of a major gene effect. Am J Med Genet. 1999;86(4):389–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Miller NH. Genetics of familial idiopathic scoliosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;462(462):6–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Baghernajad Salehi L, Mangino M, De Serio S, De Cicco D, Capon F, Semprini S, et al. Assignment of a locus for autosomal dominant idiopathic scoliosis (IS) to human chromosome 17p11. Hum Genet. 2002;111(4–5):401–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chan V, Fong GCY, Luk KDK, Yip B, Lee M-K, Wong M-S, et al. A genetic locus for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis linked to chromosome 19p13.3. Am J Hum Genet. 2002;71(2):401–6. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang W, Wang Z, Liu Z, Zhu Z, Zhu F, Sun X, et al. Are there gender differences in sagittal spinal pelvic inclination before and after the adolescent pubertal growth spurt? Eur Spine J. 2015;24(6):1168–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Justice CM, Miller NH, Marosy B, Zhang J, Wilson AF. Familial idiopathic scoliosis: evidence of an X-linked susceptibility locus. Spine. 2003;28:589–94. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wise C, Barnes R, Gillum J, Herring J, Bowcock M, Lovett M. Localization of susceptibility to familial idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 2000;25(18):2372–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cheng JC, Tang NL, Yeung HY, Miller N. Genetic association of complex traits: using idiopathic scoliosis as an example. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;462:38–44. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wise CA, Gao X, Shoemaker S, Gordon D, Herring JA. Understanding genetic factors in idiopathic scoliosis, a complex disease of childhood. Curr Genomics. 2008;9(1):51–9. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ward K, Ogilvie J, Argyle V, Nelson L, Meade M, Braun J, et al. Polygenic inheritance of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a study of extended families in Utah. Am J Med Genet Part A. 2010;152(5):1178–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kruse LM, Dobbs MB, Gurnett C. Polygenic threshold model with sex dimorphism in clubfoot inheritance: the carter effect. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90(12):2688–94. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gorman KF, Julien C, Moreau A. The genetic epidemiology of idiopathic scoliosis. Eur Spine J. 2012;21(10):1905–19. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yeung HY, Tang NL, Lee KM, Ng BK, Hung VW, Kwok R, Guo X, Qin L, Cheng JC. Genetic association study of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene with curve severity and osteopenia in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Stud Heal Technol Inf. 2006;123:18–24.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Inoue M, Minami S, Nakata Y, Kitahara H, Otsuka Y, Isobe K, et al. Association between estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms and curve severity of idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 2002;27(21):2357–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Takahashi Y, Kou I, Takahashi A, Johnson T, Kono K, Kawakami N, et al. A genome-wide association study identifies common variants near LBX1 associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Nat Genet. 2011;43:1237–40. Scholar
  43. 43.
    Londono D, Kou I, Johnson T, Sharma S, Ogura Y, Tsunoda T, et al. A meta-analysis identifies adolescent idiopathic scoliosis association with LBX1 locus in multiple ethnic groups. J Med Genet. 2014;51(6):401–6. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kou I, Takahashi Y, Johnson T, Takahashi A, Guo L, Dai J, et al. Genetic variants in GPR126 are associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Nat Genet. 2013;45:676–9. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wallin J, Wilting J, Koseki H, Fritsch R, Christ B, Balling R. The role of Pax-1 in axial skeleton development. Development. 1994;120(5):1109–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sharma S, Londono D, Eckalbar WL, Gao X, Zhang D, Mauldin K, et al. A PAX1 enhancer locus is associated with susceptibility to idiopathic scoliosis in females. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6452. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Buchan JG, Alvarado DM, Haller GE, Cruchaga C, Harms MB, Zhang T, et al. Rare variants in FBN1 and FBN2 are associated with severe adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23(19):5271–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wu J, Qiu Y, Zhang L, Sun Q, Qiu X, He Y. Association of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 2006;31(10):1131–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tang NL-S, Yeung H-Y, Lee K-M, Hung VW-Y, Cheung CS-K, Ng BK-W, et al. A relook into the association of the estrogen receptor [alpha] gene (PvuII, XbaI) and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a study of 540 Chinese cases. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 2006;31(21):2463–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sharma S, Gao X, Londono D, Devroy SE, Mauldin KN, Frankel JT, et al. Genome-wide association studies of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis suggest candidate susceptibility genes. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20(7):1456–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chen Z, Qiu Y, Ma W, Qian B, Zhu Z. Comparison of somatosensory evoked potentials between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and congenital scoliosis without neural axis abnormalities. Spine J. 2014;14(7):1095–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lao MLM, Chow DHK, Guo X, Cheng JCY, Holmes AD. Impaired dynamic balance control in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials. J Pediatr Orthop. 2008;28(8):846–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Simoneau M, Lamothe V, Hutin E, Mercier P, Teasdale N, Blouin J. Evidence for cognitive vestibular integration impairment in idiopathic scoliosis patients. BMC Neurosci. 2009;10:102.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Domenech J, García-Martí G, Martí-Bonmatí L, Barrios C, Tormos JM, Pascual-Leone A. Abnormal activation of the motor cortical network in idiopathic scoliosis demonstrated by functional MRI. Eur Spine J. 2011;20(7):1069–78.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wang D, Shi L, Chu WCW, Paus T, Cheng JCY, Heng PA. A comparison of morphometric techniques for studying the shape of the corpus callosum in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. NeuroImage. 2009;45(3):738–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Joly O, Rousié D, Jissendi P, Rousié M, Frankó E. A new approach to corpus callosum anomalies in idiopathic scoliosis using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Spine J. 2014;23(12):2643–9. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Shi L, Wang D, Hui SCN, Tong MCF, Cheng JCY, Chu WCW. Volumetric changes in cerebellar regions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis compared with healthy controls. Spine J. 2013;13(12):1904–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shi L, Wang D, Chu WCW, Burwell GR, Wong TT, Heng PA, et al. Automatic MRI segmentation and morphoanatomy analysis of the vestibular system in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Neuroimage. 2011;54(Suppl. 1):S180–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rousie DL, Deroubaix JP, Joly O, Baudrillard JC, Berthoz A. Abnormal connection between lateral and posterior semicircular canal revealed by a new modeling process: origin and physiological consequences. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2009;1164:455–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Burwell RG, Aujla RK, Freeman BJC, Dangerfield PH, Cole AA, Kirby AS, et al. Patterns of extra-spinal left-right skeletal asymmetries in adolescent girls with lower spine scoliosis: relative lengthening of the ilium on the curve concavity & of right lower limb segments. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2006;123:57–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Normelli H, Sevastik J, Akrivos J. The length and ash weight of the ribs of normal and scoliotic persons. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1985;10(6):590–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cheung CSK, Lee WTK, Tse YK, Lee KM, Guo X, Qin L, et al. Generalized osteopenia in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis—association with abnormal pubertal growth, bone turnover, and calcium intake? Spine (Phila PA 1976). 2006;31(3):330–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cheng JC, Qin L, Cheung CS, Sher AH, Lee KM, Ng SW, et al. Generalized low areal and volumetric bone mineral density in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Miner Res Off J Am Soc Bone Miner Res. 2000;15(8):1587–95. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hung VWY, Qin L, Cheung CSK, Lam TP, Ng BKW, Tse YK, et al. Osteopenia: a new prognostic factor of curve progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87(2003):2709–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cheng JC, Tang SP, Guo X, Chan CW, Qin L. Osteopenia in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a histomorphometric study. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 2001;26(3):E19–23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kouwenhoven JW, Castelein RM. The pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: review of the literature. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 2008;33(26):2898–908. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Stokes IAF, Aronsson DD, Dimock AN, Cortright V, Beck S. Endochondral growth in growth plates of three species at two anatomical locations modulated by mechanical compression and tension. J Orthop Res. 2006;24(6):1327–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Valteau B, Grimard G, Londono I, Moldovan F, Villemure I. In vivo dynamic bone growth modulation is less detrimental but as effective as static growth modulation. Bone. 2011;49(5):996–1004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sabirin J, Bakri R, Buang SN, Abdullah AT, Ortho P, Fellow S, et al. School scoliosis screening programme – a systematic review. Med J Malaysia. 2010;65(4):261–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Balioglu MB, Aydin C, Kargin D, Albayrak A, Atici Y, Tas SK, et al. Vitamin-D measurement in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2017;26(1):48–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Shohat M, Shohat T, Nitzan M, Mimouni M, Kedem R, Danon YL. Growth and ethnicity in scoliosis. Acta Orthop Scand. 1988;59(3):310–3. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Clark EM, Taylor HJ, Harding I, Hutchinson J, Nelson I, Deanfield JE, et al. Association between components of body composition and scoliosis: a prospective cohort study reporting differences identifiable before the onset of scoliosis. J Bone Miner Res. 2014;29(8):1729–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tam EMS, Yu FWP, Hung VWY, Liu Z, Liu KL, Ng BKW, et al. Are volumetric bone mineral density and bone micro-architecture associated with leptin and soluble leptin receptor levels in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? A case-control study. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e87939. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kouwenhoven J-WM, Smit TH, van der Veen AJ, Kingma I, van Dieën JH, Castelein RM. Effects of dorsal versus ventral shear loads on the rotational stability of the thoracic spine: a biomechanical porcine and human cadaveric study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32(23):2545–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Janssen MM, J-WM K, TPC S, Viergever M, Bartels LW, Castelein RM, et al. Analysis of preexistent vertebral rotation in the normal infantile, juvenile, and adolescent spine. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 2011;36(13):E486–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Schlösser TPC, Vincken KL, Rogers K, Castelein RM, Shah SA. Natural sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in boys and girls before, at and after the adolescent growth spurt. Eur Spine J. 2015;24(6):1158–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Jarvis JG, Ashman RB, Johnston CE, Herring JA. The posterior tether in scoliosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1988;227:126–34. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Roaf R. Vertebral growth and its mechanical control. J Bone Joint Surg. 1960;42B(1):40–59. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Fong DY, Lee CF, Cheung KM, Cheng JC, Ng BK, Lam TP, et al. A meta-analysis of the clinical effectiveness of school scoliosis screening. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 2010;35(10):1061–71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Luk KDK, Lee CF, Cheung KMC, Cheng JCY, Ng BKW, Lam TP, et al. Clinical effectiveness of school screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a large population-based retrospective cohort study. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 2010;35(17):1607–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Grivas TB, Vasiliadis E, Mouzakis V, Mihas C, Koufopoulos G. Association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche in different geographic latitudes. Scoliosis. 2006;1:9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    US Census Bureau. Census 2010. Suitland, MD: US Census Bureau; 2010. Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Schappert SM, Nelson C. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 1995–96 summary. Vital Heal Stat. 1999;13(142):i122.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Vigneswaran HT, Grabel ZJ, Eberson CP, Palumbo MA, Daniels AH. Surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the United States from 1997 to 2012: an analysis of 20,346 patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2015;16(3):322–8. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Burwell RG, James N, Johnson F, Webb JK, Wilson Y. Standardised trunk asymmetry scores. A study of back contour in healthy school children. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1983;65(4):452–63. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Brooks HL, Azen SP, Gerberg E, Brooks R, Chan L. Scoliosis: a prospective epidemiological study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1975;57(7):968–72. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Brooks HL, Azen SP, Gerberg E, Brooks R, Chan L. Scoliosis: a prospective epidemiological study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1975;57(7):968–72. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lonstein JE, Carlson JM. The prediction of curve progression in untreated idiopathic scoliosis during growth. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984;66(7):1061–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Montgomery F, Willner S. The natural history of idiopathic scoliosis – incidence of treatment in 15 cohorts of children born between 1963 and 1977. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 1997;22(7):772–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rogala EJ, Drummond DS, Gurr J. Scoliosis: incidence and natural history. A prospective epidemiological study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1978;60(2):173–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Willner S, Udén A. A prospective prevalence study of scoliosis in Southern Sweden. Acta Orthop Scand. 1982;53(2):233–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Nachemson A. A long term follow-up study of non-treated scoliosis. Acta Orthop Scand. 1968;39(4):466–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Nilsonne U, Lundgren K. Long-term prognosis in idiopathic scoliosis. Acta Orthop Scand. 1968;39(4):456–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Weinstein SL, Dolan LA, Spratt KF, Peterson KK, Spoonamore MJ, Ponseti IV. Health and function of patients with untreated idiopathic scoliosis: a 50-year natural history study. JAMA. 2003;289(5):559–67. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Edgar MA. The natural history of unfused scoliosis. Orthopedics. 1987;10(6):931–9. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Risser JC, Ferguson AB. Scoliosis: its prognosis. J Bone Joint Surg. 1936;18(3):667–70. Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Weinstein SL. Idiopathic scoliosis: natural history. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 1986;11(8):780–3. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Risser JC, Brand RA. The iliac apophysis: an invaluable sign in the management of scoliosis. Clin Orthopaed Relat Res. 2010;2010:646–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sanders JO, Khoury JG, Kishan S, Browne RH, Mooney JF, Arnold KD, et al. Predicting scoliosis progression from skeletal maturity: a simplified classification during adolescence. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90(3):540–53. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sanders JO. Maturity assessment and curve progression in girls with idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg. 2007;89(1):64. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Tanner J. Assessment of skeletal maturity and prediction of adult height (TW3 method). 3rd ed. London: W.B. Saunders; 2001.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bunnell WP. The natural history of idiopathic scoliosis before skeletal maturity. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 1986;11(8):773–6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Lonstein JE, Winter RB. The Milwaukee brace for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A review of one thousand and twenty patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1994;76(8):1207–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Dolan L, Haggerty K, Weinstein S. Evaluation of TLSOS in the bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis trial (BrAIST). Scoliosis. 2013;8(Suppl 1):O48. PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Weinstein S, Dolan L, Wright J, Dobbs M. Effects of bracing in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(16):1512–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Weinstein S, Dolan L. The evidence base for the prognosis and treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: the 2015 Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation Clinical Research Award. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015;18(97):1899–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Picault C, DeMauroy J, Mouilleseaux B, Diana G. Natural history of idiopathic scoliosis in girls and boys. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1986;11:777–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Deacon P, Flood BM, Dickson R. Idiopathic scoliosis in three dimensions. A radiographic and morphometric analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1984;66(4):509–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Shufflebarger HL, King WF. Composite measurement of scoliosis: a new method of analysis of the deformity. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 1986;12:228–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Weinstein S, Dolan L, Cheng J, Danielsson A, Morcuende J. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Lancet. 2008;3(371(9623)):1527–37. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Frymoyer JW, Newberg A, Pope MH. Spine radiographs in patients with low-back pain: an epidemiological study in men. J Bone Joint Surg Ser A. 1984;66(7):1048–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Deyo RA, Mirza SK, Martin BI. Back pain prevalence and visit rates: estimates from U.S. national surveys, 2002. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 2006;31(23):2724–7. Scholar
  113. 113.
    Horal J. The clinical appearance of low back disorders in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden. Comparisons of incapacitated probands with matched controls. Acta Orthop Scand. 1969;118:1–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Nachemson A. Adult scoliosis and back pain. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 1979;4(6):513–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Robin GC, Span Y, Steinberg R, Makin M, Menczel J. Scoliosis in the elderly: a follow-up study. Spine. 1982;7:355–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kostuik JP, Bentivoglio J. The incidence of low back pain in adult scoliosis. Acta Orthop Belg. 1981;47(4–5):548–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
  118. 118.
    Yaszay B, Bastrom TP, Bartley CE, Parent S, Newton PO. The effects of the three-dimensional deformity of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis on pulmonary function. Eur Spine J. 2017;26:1658–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Newton P, Faro F, Gollogly S, Betz R, Lenke L, Lowe T. Results of preoperative pulmonary function testing of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. A study of six hundred and thirty-one patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87:1937–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Winter RB, Lovell WW, Moe JH. Excessive thoracic lordosis and loss of pulmonary function in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1975;57(7):972–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Branthwaite MA. Cardiorespiratory consequences of unfused idiopathic scoliosis. Br J Dis Chest. 1986;80(C):360–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Pehrsson K, Danielsson A, Nachemson A. Pulmonary function in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a 25 year follow up after surgery or start of brace treatment. Thorax. 2001;56(5):388–93. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kearon C, Viviani GR, Kirkley A, Killian KJ. Factors determining pulmonary function in adolescent idiopathic thoracic scoliosis. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993;148(2):288–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Lin MC, Liaw MY, Chen WJ, Cheng PT, AMK W, Chiou WK. Pulmonary function and spinal characteristics: their relationships in persons with idiopathic and postpoliomyelitic scoliosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82(3):335–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Danielsson a J, Nachemson a L. Childbearing, curve progression, and sexual function in women 22 years after treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a case-control study. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 2001;26(13):1449–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Blount W, Mellencamp D. The effect of pregnancy on idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1980;62(7):1083–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Berman A, Cohen D, Schwentker E. The effects of pregnancy on idiopathic scoliosis. A preliminary report on eight cases and a review of the literature. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 1982;7(1):76–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Betz RR, Bunnell WP, Lambrecht-Mulier E, MacEwen GD. Scoliosis and pregnancy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1987;69(1):90–6. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Visscher W, Lonstein JE, Hoffman DA, Mandel JS, Harris BS. Reproductive outcomes in scoliosis patients. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 1988;13(10):1096–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Negrini S, Negrini A, Atanasio S, Santambrogio GC. Three-dimensional easy morphological (3-DEMO) classification of scoliosis, part I. Scoliosis. 2006;1(1):20. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Poncet P, Dansereau J, Labelle H. Geometric torsion in idiopathic scoliosis: three-dimensional analysis and proposal for a new classification. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 2001;26:2235–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Rigo MD, Villagrasa M, Gallo D. A specific scoliosis classification correlating with brace treatment: description and reliability. Scoliosis. 2010;5(1):1–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Weiss H. The method of Katharina Schroth – history, principles and current development. Scoliosis. 2011;6:17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Lenke LG, Betz RR, Harms J, Bridwell KH, Clements DH, Lowe TG, et al. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A new classification to determine extent of spinal arthrodesis. J Bone Joint Surg. 2001;83(8):1169–81. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Qiu G, Zhang J, Wang Y, Xu H, Zhang J, Weng X, et al. A new operative classification of idiopathic scoliosis: a peking union medical college method. Spine (Phila PA 1976). 2005;30(12):1419–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Greulich W, Pyle S. Radiographic atlas of skeletal development of the hand and wrist. 2nd ed. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press; 1959.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Tanner J. Growth and endocrinology of the adolescent. In: Ll G, editor. Edocrine and genetic diseases of childhood. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders; 1974. 14 p.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedics and RehabilitationThe University of Iowa Hospitals and ClinicsIowa CityUSA

Personalised recommendations