Origin of Active Pollination and Mutualism

  • Atsushi Kawakita
  • Makoto Kato
Part of the Ecological Research Monographs book series (ECOLOGICAL)


The mutualisms between plants and their seed-parasitic pollinators, such as the fig–fig wasp, yucca–yucca moth, and leafflower–leafflower moth mutualisms, provide textbook examples of specialized pollination systems (Weiblen 2002; Cook and Rasplus 2003; Pellmyr 2003; Kato et al. 2003). Remarkably, in all three systems, the pollinator insects actively collect and transport pollen between flowers in order to ensure food for their seed-feeding larvae. Reciprocal adaptation by plants to restrict floral access by other visitors resulted in extreme mutual dependence between plants and insects. Consequently, these mutualisms served as principal model systems for the studies of coevolution and mutualism.


Breynia Epicephala Flueggea Gracillariidae Glochidion Phyllantheae Phyllanthus Phylogeny 

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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Ecological ResearchKyoto UniversityOtsuJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Human and Environmental StudiesKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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