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Bioprobes pp 115-147 | Cite as

Adaptive and Innate Immune Systems

  • Takao KataokaEmail author
Chapter
  • 459 Downloads

Abstract

Adaptive and innate immune systems play essential roles in the recognition and elimination of microbial pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In adaptive immunity, T cells and B cells induce immune responses through their respective antigen receptors, called T-cell receptors and B-cell receptors, both of which specifically recognize antigens or antigenic peptides derived from microbial pathogens. In innate immunity, germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) serve as sensors that detect the pathogen-associated molecular patterns found in microbial pathogens. PRRs have been classified into different families: the toll-like receptor family, nucleotide binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing receptor family, retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptor family, and C-type lectin receptor family. Upon the recognition of microbial pathogens, antigen receptors or PRRs initiate various signaling pathways, leading to the activation of different transcriptional programs that provoke immune responses in order to eliminate invaded pathogens. In this chapter, I describe small-molecule modulators that target specific steps in the intracellular signaling pathways induced by antigen receptors, PRRs, and inflammatory cytokine receptors.

Keywords

Antigen receptor C-type lectin receptor Fas Granzyme Inflammasome Nuclear factor κB Perforin RIG-I-like receptor Toll-like receptor Tumor necrosis factor receptor 

Abbreviations

ASC:

apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD

BCL10:

B-cell lymphoma 10

BCR:

B-cell receptors

BTK:

Burton’s tyrosine kinase

CARD:

caspase recruitment domain

CARMA1:

caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein 1

CLR:

C-type lectin receptor

CRIDs:

cytokine release inhibitory drugs

CTLs:

cytotoxic T lymphocytes

DAG:

diacylglycerol

DISC:

death-inducing signaling complex

EGTA:

ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethylether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid

ER:

endoplasmic reticulum

FADD:

Fas-associated death domain protein

FasL:

Fas ligand

IFN:

interferon

IκB:

inhibitor of NF-κB

IKK:

IκB kinase

IL:

interleukin

IL-1R:

IL-1 receptor

IP3:

inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate

IPS-1:

IFN-β promoter stimulator 1

IRAK:

IL-1 receptor-associated kinase

IRFs:

IFN regulatory factors

ITAMs:

immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs

ITK:

interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase

LBP:

LPS binding protein

LGP2:

laboratory of genetics and physiology 2

LPS:

lipopolysaccharide

MACPF:

membrane attack complex perforin

MALT1:

mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1

MD-2:

myeloid differentiation factor 2

MDA5:

melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5

MyD88:

myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88

NFAT:

nuclear factor of activated T cells

NF-κB:

nuclear factor κB

NK:

natural killer

NLR:

nucleotide binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing receptor

PAMPs:

pathogen-associated molecular patterns

PDK1:

3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1

PI3K:

phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

PIP3:

phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate

PKC:

protein kinase C

PLC:

phospholipase C

PTKs:

protein tyrosine kinases

PRRs:

pattern recognition receptors

PYD:

pyrin domain

RIG-I:

retinoic acid-inducible gene I

RIP:

receptor-interacting protein

RLR:

retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptor

ROS:

reactive oxygen species

SYK:

spleen tyrosine kinase

TAK1:

TGF-β-activated kinase 1

TBK1:

TANK binding kinase 1

TCR:

T-cell receptors

TIR:

toll/IL-1R

TIRAP:

TIR domain-containing adaptor protein

TLR:

toll-like receptor

TNF:

tumor necrosis factor

TNF-R1:

TNF receptor 1

TRAF:

TNF receptor-associated factor

TRAM:

TRIF-related adaptor molecule

TRIF:

TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β

Z-VRPR-fmk:

benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Arg-Pro-Arg-fluoromethylketone

Notes

Acknowledgments

I sincerely thank Dr. Hiroyuki Koshino for his help in confirming and drawing the structures of the compounds. I am also very grateful to Dr. Kazuo Nagai for his critical reading of this manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied BiologyKyoto Institute of TechnologyKyotoJapan

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