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Immunophenotype

  • Kaoru Uchimaru
Chapter

Abstract

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a malignancy of CD4(+) T cells. Pan-T markers such as CD2, CD3, and CD5 are expressed but most ATL cases lack CD7. Typical ATL cases are CD4(+)/CD8(−), but there are CD4(−)/CD8(+), CD4/8 double-positive, and double-negative cases. These CD8 antigens are induced on CD4 T cells. ATL cells express CCR4 and CD25, which are common in regulatory T cells. Furthermore, they express other regulatory T cell markers, such as GITR and CTLA4. These immunophenotypical similarities with regulatory T cells, along with the expression of FoxP3, a master regulator of regulatory T cell development, suggests that ATL cells may be derived from regulatory T cells. Because FoxP3 expression is induced by HBZ, the origin of ATL cells should be determined carefully in the future. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) infected cells alter their immunophenotype during the oncogenic process into ATL. CD3 is downregulated while cells infected with HTLV-1 proceed from an asymptomatic carrier state to ATL. CD7 and CD26 are also downregulated, whereas CADM1 expression is induced in this process. These immunophenotypic changes can be useful for detecting ATL cells and analyzing the oncogenic progression to ATL.

Keywords

Th2 Regulatory T cell Transferrin receptor CADM1 

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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hematology/Oncology, Research Hospital, Institute of Medical Sciencethe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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