Pathology

Chapter

Abstract

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a human malignancy associated with infection by the retrovirus human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) (Takatsuki. Jpn Soc Res 25:97–103, 1985; Poiesz et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:6815–6819, 1980). Approximately 90% of infected individuals remain asymptomatic carriers throughout their lifetime (Gonçalves et al. Clin Microbiol Rev 23(3):577–589, 2010). ATL involves many organs and systems, including the circulatory system, lymphatic system, skin, liver, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, because ATL leads to immunodeficiency and immunoreactivity, it can indirectly cause many other problems, such as opportunistic lung infections, monoclonal gammopathy, chronic renal failure, and strongyloidiasis (Takatsuki et al. Gann Mono Can Res 32:1–15, 1992). HTLV-I also causes a chronic progressive myelopathy known as HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), which is linked to specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes, and leads to inflammatory disorders of organ systems other than the nervous system, which include uveitis, alveolitis (Osame et al. Lancet i:1013–1014, 1986; Gessain et al. Lancet ii: 407–409, 1985), Sjögren syndrome, polymyositis, and arthritis (Table 4.1) (Takatsuki et al. Gann Mono Can Res 32:1–15, 1992).
Table 4.1

Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1)-related disease

Neoplastic disorders

Reactive disorders

 Peripheral blood (leukemia)

 Confirmed

  Smoldering type

  HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM)

  Chronic type

  HTLV-I-associated uveitis

  Acute type

 Not confirmed

 Lymph node (Lymphoma)

  HTLV-I-associated lymphadenitis

  Hodgkin’s-like type

  HTLV-I-associated bronchopneumopathy (HAB)

  Pleomorphic small-cell type

  HTLV-I-associated arthropathy (HAAP)

  Pleomorphic (medium- and large-cell) type

  HTLV-I-associated nephropathy

  Anaplastic large-cell type

  Infective dermatitis

 Skin

  Polymyositis

  Erythema

  Sjögren syndrome

  Papule

  Autoimmune thyroiditis

  Nodule

  Polyneuropathy

  Tumor

Immunodeficiency association

 Gastrointestinal tract

 Strongyloidiasis (gastrointestinal tract)

  Erosion

 Varicella zoster (skin)

  Ulceration

 Crusted scabies (skin)

  Tumor

 Opportunistic lung infection

 Liver

  Pneumocystis carinii

  Portal or sinus infiltration

  Cytomegalovirus

 Bone marrow

  Aspergillus fumigatus

  Infiltration with or without fibrosis

  Candida albicans

 Lung

  Cryptococcus neoformans

  Interstitial infiltration

 Carcinoma (not confirmed)

Modified from Ref. [64]

Keywords

Pleomorphic Lymph node Skin Gastrointestinal tract Bone marrow 

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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology, School of MedicineKurume UniversityKurumeJapan

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