The incidence of electron waves in TEM and STEM causes the transmission of electrons (=electric current) with a high energy larger than 100 keV. Particularly, heating of specimens by the Joule heat, knock-on at an atomic nucleus due to the momentum transfer from moving electrons, and bond breaking due to electronic excitation are occurred. As a result, atomistic structures are changed, which is named electron irradiation effects or damages.
Atomic Nucleus Electron Irradiation Quantum Noise Incident Electron Electric Excitation
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