What are Image Processing Methods?

  • Nobuo Tanaka


In TEM and STEM, the magnification (M) of images is ordinarily several million or tens of million for observing atomic columns with spacing less than 0.2 nm. The electron intensity (number of electrons onto films or detectors) is reduced by \( M^{2} \). From the viewpoint of irradiation damage of specimens, we cannot illuminate excessive electrons onto a specimen. The signal-to-noise ratio (\( = n/\sqrt n \), where n is the number of electrons) of the images is reduced in higher magnification.


Spatial Frequency Image Intensity HRTEM Image Reciprocal Space Lattice Fringe 
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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan

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